Mediterranean Society and the Greek Phase Ch. 10 Early Development of Greek Society Minoan and Mycenaean Societies KNOSSOS DECLINE OF MINOAN SOCIETY Area where several lavish palaces were built Nerve center of the area Used as residences and a warehouse Created script known as Linear A Crete principal center for Meditteranean
commerce Influenced by Phoenician's and Series of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tidal waves After natural disasters occurred they began to rebuild (plumbing, toilet flushing) Get invaded but kept maritime MYCENAEAN SOCIETY
IndoEuropeans move into area Traded with Minoans Developed Linear B Created fortified areas and settlers began to move in creating the CHAOS IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEA N Mycenaeans go into battle against Troy Inspiration for the Iliad. 1100-800bcemany signs of decline (civil disturbances, pop. drop, writing disappeared) DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Town of Akrotiri
harbor 1. What does this alfresco suggest about Minoan societies? DISCUSSION QUESTIONS The Lion Gate at Mycenae 2. Based on the image and title of the image, what does this suggest about Mycenaean society? The World of the Polis SPARTA THE POLIS No established centralized govt. Local govt took the lead Polis-city-state, but also a fortified area that grew into a
commercial center Controlled surrounding regions Levied taxes and agriculture from those they protected Some polis were monarchies, most were collective Began to control much of the Peloponnesus area Those under control were helots-servants of the Spartan state. Helots not slaves but couldnt leave land They provided the agriculture for Sparta Sparta always had
SPARTAN SOCIETY Equal in status Didnt really have fancy items Iron bars for money Simple, frugal and austere Distinction came in the form of strength Boys left home at 7 for military training Age 20-military Women physical training, 18-20 could marry but not live with husbands Foundation of military discipline The World
ATHENS of the Polis ATHENIAN SOCIETY SOLON & ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY and PERICLES Govt based on democratic principles More negotiators, looked at all interests Only free adult males played a role in public 7th c. bce maritime trade prosperity Aristocracy saw the most benefit Also controlled Athenian govt Many polies suffered from economic inequality which
Solon-aristocrat who served as a mediator b/w the rich and poor Allowed rich to keep land and cancelled various forms of debt Liberated those in debt Pericles-most popular Athenian leader Building programs that provided employment Most sophisticated Discussion Question 3. To what extent did geography encourage Greeks to venture into the Mediterranean Sea? GREECE AND THE LARGER WORLD Greek Colonies Greek Colonies Effects of Greek
Colonization 4. What does this merchant vessel suggest about maritime trade? Greek colonies were also est. on the East Med. Of the Black Sea Along the Coast line Gave access to various resources No centralized imperial state More communication More interaction and exchange Spread culture and language throughout the Mediterranean As merchants brought more money into the area they were able to establish small states. Discussion Question 5. In what ways did the colonies serve as links b/w Greece and the larger Mediterranean region? Conflict w/Persia The Persian Wars
Darius starts a war against peninsular Greece Attacked Athens and Athenians were able to hold them off Xerxes makes his own attempt He burnt down Athens but Athenians attacked the Persian navy Persian not willingly to put more efforts into conquering The Delian League Delian League-an alliance system b/w Greek city-states to keep Persian at bay. Athens leader of alliance Athens supplied
military but other gave financial contributions that went to the Athenian treasury The Peloponnesian War Athens vs. Sparta Sparta will become the victors due to their military strength Athenians took advantage of the power wielded to them The Macedonians and the Coming of Empire Philip of Kingdom of Macedon Macedon Alexander of Macedon
Alexanders Conquest 6. How was Alexander able to bring such extensive territories under his control? Consisted of herders and cultivators Greeks were traders Located north of Greek peninsular King Philip changed Macedon into a more militaristic state Consolidated his rule over all the area Wanted Greece and Persia Could easily take
Alexander came into power due to an assassinati on of his father Brilliant strategist Great leader Had a great army Conquered from the Mediterran ean to the Punjab of India The HellenisticTheEmpires The Hellenistic Era Antigonid Empire
The Ptolemaic Empire 7. Consider the geographical conditions and economic potential of the 3 empires. Hellenistic era- Greek cultural traditions expanded their influence beyond Greece to a much larger world Sponsored interaction b/w many different peoples Integrated economies, facilitated Smallest of Hellenistic empires Antigonid Rulers and Greek cities often made
economic compromises (tax relief) Wealthiest of the empires In Egypt Did not really interfere but rather served more as monitors and tax collectors over the area Est. monopolies over lucrative economic The Hellenistic Empires Alexandria Ptolemaic capital Administrative headquarters Largest port at the time Megalopolispeople of various ethnicities, cultures and traditions. Alexandrian
Museum and The Seleucid Empire Greek influence reached its greatest extent here Created a Mediterranean Greeks in Bactria Founded by either Alexander or Seleucus Withdrew from Seleucid empire and est. and ind. Greek kingdom Greek culture But also welcomed The Fruits of Trade: Greek Economy and Society Trade and the Integration of the Mediterranean Basin Trade Commercial and Economic Organization
Panhelleni c Festivals Olympic Games 8. What does this pot suggest about the importance of trade? Harvesting Olives Olive and grapes Trade around the Mediterrane an encouraged much Trade Ship owners, contributed to a merchants and larger sense of moneylenders community created Greek culture partnerships
spread Entrepreneurs est. Festivals helped small businesses reinforce Greek Best athletes of various poleis went to Olympia to compete (strength, speed, skill) Winners were seen as heroes Wore olive Family and Society Patriarchal Society Sappho Slavery 9. What does this image suggest about slavery?
Males rule Make decisions, even on keeping infants Women under family male authorities Could not own land but some owned businesses Spartan women had more freedom, though Slave carrying his drunken Upper class women master were at times home taught to read Poet Sappho Invited young women for
instruction in music & literature Homosexuality fine for men but not women Used as a labor force Types of slaves: indebted, chattel slavery Most did hard labor but some were domestic servants Economic investments Could sometimes The Cultural Life of Classical Greece Rational Thought and Philosophy Greek Science and Mathematics Greek Philosophy
Socrates 10. What did Socrates mean by the phrase the unexamined life is not worth living? Used evidence, rational thinking, and human reason to explain the world Pythagoras Pythagoras theorem Hippocratesmedical practice to understand Greek expression was philosophyreason to bear on human issues as well as natural world Socrates-wanted to understand humans and human affairs
Questions that posed reflection Focused on ethics and morality Honest lives more important than wealth and fame the unexamined life is not worth living Many elites did not like him because it challenged their Rational Thought and Philosophy Plato Disciple of Socrates Theory of Forms and Ideas Virtue meant different things in different situations World we live in is not the only world but a pale imperfection of the world of Form or Ideas Aristotle Disciple of Plato Rely on senses and reason
Use logic to create arguments master of those who know Greek philosophers Popular Religion Greek Deities Did not recognize one god Polytheistic Created myths about their gods Zeus, grandson of earth and sky gods, is the main ruler Zeus had subordinate deities Religious Cults Explained the world Foundation for religious cults Held rituals Womens Cults
Some cults only for women Popular Religion Tragic Drama The Cult of Dionysus Women most devoted to Dionysus (god of wine) Was once more wild cult became more domesticated and began to honor the polis, relations b/w human and gods and Complicated themes Explored the possibilities and limitations of human action Often dramas were about public and political affairs Hellenistic Philosophy and Religion The Hellenistic Philosophers
Epicureans, Skeptics and Stoics Epicureans-pleasure is the greatest good Skeptics-doubted possibility of certain knowledge and didnt take part in moral, social or political issues Stoics- aid others lead virtuous lives All wanted to achieve inner peace Religions of Salvation Mystery religions offered eternal bliss for those who followed their doctrine Cult of Osiris because it promised salvation
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