Life Science NJ ASK Review - Kawameeh Middle School
Life Science NJ ASK Review 8th Grade Science What is a food chain? A food chain is a sequence of organisms, each of which uses the next, lower member of the sequence as a food source1 Important facts about food chains In a food chain each organism obtains energy from the one at the level below. Plants are called producers
because they create their own food through photosynthesis Animals are consumers because they cannot create their own food, they must eat plants or other animals to get the energy that they need. Four types of consumer Herbivores: animals that eat only plants Carnivores: animals that eat only other animals. Omnivores: animals that eat animals and plants.
Detritivores: Animals that eat dead materials and organic wastes Other Ways to Classify Consumers 1. Primary Consumers: Herbivores. 2. Secondary Consumers: Carnivores that eat herbivores. 3. Tertiary Consumers: Carnivores that eat other carnivores; an animal that feeds only on secondary consumers. Identify the producer, one primary consumer, one secondary
consumer and a tertiary consumer. Tertiary Consumers Secondary Consumers Primary Consumers Producer Interaction of Organisms Predator vs Prey hunter vs hunted Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism: both organisms benefit from the relationship
Ex: zebra and oxpecker; rhino and birds, shark and cleaner fish; bee and flower Parasitism: one organism benefits, one is harmed ex: ticks on animals; mistletoe Commensalism: one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Ex: cockleburs; cattle and cattle egrets Animal vs. Plant Cell Determine the similarities and differences. Animal
Lysosomes Many small vacuoles Nucleus is usually in the center Rounded vs. Plant Chloroplasts Mitochondria
Ribosomes Cell Walls ER Rough One Large Central Vacuole Smooth Vacuoles Nucleus usually pushed to Nucleus Nuclear Membrane the side Cell Membrane Usually rectangular(ish) Cytoplasm
Golgi Apparatus Hierarchy of Biological Classification Multicellular living things made up of two or more cells Unicellular living things that are made of only one cell Eukaryotic contains membrane bound organelles such as the nucleus Prokaryotic no membrane bound nucleus 3 Domains, 6 Kingdoms Hierarchy of Biological Classification
An easy way to remember King Philip Came Over For Good Soup Which taxonomic group includes all the other groups?
Kingdom Human beings are most closely related to other animals that are in the same ________________. Species Domain The three domains consist of Archaea, Eukaryote and Bacteria Kingdom
The group that includes all living organisms. There are 5 different groups which include: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista and Monera Phylum This group splits animals by major characteristics. In example: Vertebrates are in the Chordata Phylum. Class This level of classification divides organisms into more specific groups such as reptiles and mammals
Order This level narrows down even further by physical characteristics. Family A family may include animals that live in the same area or have even more similar characteristics. If turtles were the order, any water turtle would be in the same family Genus Further, final breakdown.
Species Most specific and final step. Pinpoints the exact creature. Organization of Living Organisms Cells -basic unit of an animals structure -become specialized _______________________________ Tissues -made of cells that work together to perform a specific function
__________________________________________ Organs -made of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specifi ____________________________________________________ Organ Systems -made of organs that work together to perform a specific functio ________________________________________________________ Organisms Genetics - What are traits? Physical Traits Can be seen by others Examples:
Eye color, hair color, height, left handed Acquired Traits Learned skills Examples: Playing a sport, riding a bike, playing a musical instrument Behavioral Traits Instinctual actions Examples: Nest building and migration Genetics
Genotype The genotype is the specific genetic makeup of an individual, usually in the form of DNA. It codes for the phenotype of the individual. Phenotype An individuals observable traits. What people can SEE when they look at you Different Allele forms of a gene, which produce variations of a genetically
inherited trait. heterozygous An individual with non-identical alleles of a gene is that gene Examples: Bb, Tt, Aa homozygous An individual with identical alleles of a gene is Examples: BB or bb, TT or tt for that gene for
Terms Used in Modern Genetics A genetic factor that blocks another genetic factor is called dominant A genetic factor that is blocked by the presence of a dominant factor is called recessive An allele is dominant if its effect masks the effect of a recessive allele paired with it Capital letters (A) signify dominant alleles; lowercase letters (a) signify recessive alleles Homozygous dominant (AA) Homozygous recessive (aa)
Heterozygous (Aa) Generation 1 B B b b In this case we have a dad with black fur and a mother with white fur. Because black is the dominant gene, we write it with a capital B. White fur is a recessive trait. It is written with a lowercase b. It does not matter what letter we choose to represent a gene, but capital letter is always dominant and lowercase is always recessive.
Tongue Curling T=can curl t=cannot curl T t t t Copy into your notebook and complete the Punnetts Square. What percentage of offspring will be able to curl their tongue?
When Would a Cell Growth Divide? Repair or Replacement Cancer Different cells divide at different rates: Most mammalian cells = 12-24 hours Some bacterial cells = 20-30 minutes Mitosis vs. Meiosis
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and
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