Ionic compounds

Ionic compounds

BELL RINGER: Write the ions for the following elements/polyatomic ions Mg K Cl Nitrate Chromate Li Ba O Sulfate

Carbonate P I S Acetate Cyanide Ionic compounds What is a bond? A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence

electrons of different atoms that binds them together. Can be formed by atoms gaining, losing, or sharing electrons. Why do atoms form chemical bonds? To become more stable (lower potential energy) ONLY valence electrons are used for bonding. Ionic bonds Atoms lose or gain electrons to satisfy octet (become more stable) Form two kinds of ionsatom that has an electrical charge.

Cationspositively charged atoms. Anionsnegatively charged atoms Periodic trends associated with ionic bonding Ionization energyenergy required to remove an electron from the outer shell of an atom. Electron affinitythe change in energy when an electron is added to the outer shell. For bondingHigh IE, high EA = less likely to give electrons = anion Low IE, low EA = more likely to give electrons = cation Need more convincing?

Draw orbital diagram for F. Formation of Cations Atoms that lose electrons: Low IEdoes not require a ton of energy to take an e- away Low EA-does not readily accept other e- into outer shell. Examples: Metals Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, etc

Draw orbital diagrams for the following: Li Transition Metals Form cations with different oxidation states (depends on what its bound to) Titanium: [Ar]4s23d2 Can lose two electrons for Ti2+ or four electrons for Ti4+ Sometimes they will rearrange to have a pseudo-noble gas configuration (full outer shell, but not really) Copper usually has its electrons fully rearrange to form [Cu]4s13d10

instead of [Cu]4s23d9 Formation of Anions Atoms that gain electrons: High IErequires a ton of energy to take an eaway High EA-readily accepts other e- into outer shell. Examples: Halogens and nonmetals F, N, O, Cl, etc. Draw orbital diagrams of the valence shells of the following:

S EXIT SLIP - Write the oxidation states for the following elements B Be Al Br Na Se

N F As Ionic Bonds Held together by electrostatic force Electrostatic forceforce of attraction between positively and negatively charged particles Crystal lattice What is it? a 3 dimensional geometric arrangement of particles

where + and ions surround each other the ions are packed into a regular repeating pattern that balances the forces of attraction and repulsion between the atoms Crystal lattice Na Cl

- In a solid state, ionic compounds are nonconductors, ions must be free to move for a current to pass through it - In a liquid state (molten) or when dissolved in water they are good conductors (ions are free to move) Amorphousparticles are arranged randomly throughout the solid Crystallineparticles pack in an organized fashion Amorphous Crystalline

Amorphous Crystalline Lattice energy The energy released when 1 mol of an ionic compound is formed from gaseous ions. Endothermicenergy has to be absorbed for the rxn to happen Surroundings are colder

Exothermicenergy is released (Ex: -436 kJ/mol) Surroundings feel warmer since energy is given off Which is more stable? Formation of ionic compounds is almost ALWAYS exothermic Why??? More stable with lower potential energy Formulas Formula unit--represents the most simple ratio of the ions in an ionic compound The total number of e-s gained by the nonmetal

must equal the number lost by the metal atoms Oxidation statesgive insight into how the atom will bond Used to determine the formula for a compound Nomenclature What is it?? The naming and writing of formulas for chemical compounds. Rules for ionic nomenclature 1.) Cation is ALWAYS written first.

2.) Anion is ALWAYS written second. 3.) Use subscripts to cancel out charges (CRISS CROSS charges) 4.) Put a parentheses around the polyatomic ion 5.) If charges can simplify, then simplify 6.) Overall charge of the compound formed is always ZERO Practice Write the formulas for a compound formed by the following: K and Cl Mg and Br Li and O

Aluminum and Carbonate Calcium and Hydroxide Ammonium and Nitrogen Rules for ionic nomenclature 1. Write the name of the cation 1st using the elements name 2. Write the root word of the anion 2nd plus change the suffix to ide 3.NEVER change the name of a polyatomic ion 4. Transition metals can have more than one ox. # 1. Write the elemental name then give ox. # as roman numeral in

parenthesis. Ex: iron (III) oxide Practice Write the name of the following compounds: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

MgCl2 CaCO3 Cu2(SO4)3 KCN AgOH TiS2 Practice Write the formulas for the following compounds: Magnesium Bromide Calcium Nitrate

Sodium Carbonate Lead (II) Chloride Elements Chemical Bonding Formula Mg + NO3 Nomenclature Practice Al + Br

Ag2+ + CrO4 C2H3O2 + Ca F + NH4 Be + IO3 SO4 + NH4 Li + AsO4 Fe2+ + PO4 Cu2+ + P K + Cr O Chemical Name

Bell Ringer WS3 FeO Mg2C Cu3P SnF2 ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

___________________________________ chromium (III) oxide ________________________________ Platinum (IV) iodide ________________________________ tin (II) nitride __________________________________ strontium oxide __________________________________ Hydrides Hydrogen can gain or lose one e- depending on what it binds with WHY? When bonding with metals, H gains an e Since it is an anion, it gets the -ide suffix

Examples: LiH, MgH2, NaH, etc. Hydrates Contain water in crystalline lattice Can remove water without chemically altering substance Nomenclature is the same as ionic compounds, except take water molecules into account. How? Use prefixes to show number of water molecules

Nomenclature for Hydrates Examples: CuSO4 5H2O 1.) Use name of compound: 2.) Name hydrate with correct prefix: Mono = 1 Di = 2 Tri = 3 Tetra = 4 Penta = 5

Hexa = 6 Hepta = 7 Octa = 8 Nona = 9 Deca = 10

Practice Name the following compounds: MgSO47H2O CoCl25H2O NaCl2H2O Al2(SO4)39H2O NiCl43H2O Practice

Write the formulas for the following compounds: Iron (II) fluoride tetrahydrate Barium hydroxide octahydrate Lead (II) perchlorate pentahydrate Copper (II) acetate monohydrate Tin (II) chloride dihydrate Electron Dot Diagrams Represent the valence electrons and show the structures of compounds and molecules. Draw the electron dot diagram for the following elements:

1.) Mg 2.) O 3.) Na Lewis Dot Diagrams for Ionic Compounds Draw the Lewis dot diagram for the following compounds: 1.) Magnesium fluoride 2.) Sodium chloride 3.) Calcium oxide Exit Slip (with one partner)

Draw the compound formula and draw the Lewis dot diagrams for the following compounds: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Aluminum sulfide

Sodium oxide Iron (II) Chloride Calcium Nitride Lithium Oxide 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Copper (III) Bromide Silver (II) Phosphide Magnesium oxide Potassium nitride Titanium (III) sulfide Barium Bromide

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