Introduction to Sponges

Introduction to Sponges

Introduction to Sponges Porifera Porifera Pore-bearing Over 4,000 species Mostly marine

Classification Kingdom Animalia Plant-like in appearance Lack some typical animal characteristics Distinct tissues

Dead end phylum Nothing evolved from the Porifera Classification Organized into three classes Based on skeleton structure differences

Calcareous sponges Glass sponges Encrusting sponges Calcareous Sponges Classification Class Calcarea

Size Small, 4 inches or smaller Location Shallow waters

Calcareous Sponges Structure Skeletons made of spicules little spikes Made of calcium carbonate (lime)

Calcareous Sponges Two types Leucosolenia Simple (asconoid) canal system Scypha

Advanced (syconoid) canal system Canal System Function Simple canal system Water enters internal cavity (spongoceol) through pore cells in the body wall Pore cell openings incurrent openings (ostia)

Cells of the spongoceol absorb nutrients and oxygen Water exits through excurrent opening (osculum) Advanced canal system Folded body walls Increases surface area

Greater absorption of nutrients and oxygen Glass Sponges Classification Class Hexactinellida Size

Larger, vase-shaped Location Deep, tropical waters Structure Skeleton made of crystalline silicon dioxide

Geometric pattern Formed by six-pointed spicules Possesses advanced canal system Encrusting Sponges Classification

Demospongiae (Demo people) Used as bath sponges Size Large Location

Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Mediterranean Sea Encrusting Sponges Structure Skeleton can be made of:

Elastic (spongin) fibers Makes them spongy Silicon dioxide Combination of both Possess a complex (leuconoid) canal system

Commercial use Collected by divers Allowed to die/decompose in water Spongy skeleton remains and is cleaned to be sold

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