Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology

Myers PSYCHOLOGY (5th Ed) Chapter 11 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers Origins of Intelligence Intelligence Test a method of assessing an individuals mental

aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores Origins of Intelligence Mental Age a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8

Origins of Intelligence Stanford-Binet the widely used American revision of Binets original intelligence test revised by Terman at Stanford University Origins of Intelligence Intelligence Quotient (IQ) defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100

IQ = ma/ca x 100) on contemporary tests it is the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 What is Intelligence? Intelligence capacity for goal-directed and adaptive behavior involves certain abilities profit from experience solve problems reason effectively

What is Intelligence? IQ is a score on a test it is not something you have Is intelligence singular or multiple abilities? Does it relate to speed of brain processing? Intelligence Is intelligence culturally defined? Are intelligence tests culture

free? Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? Brain size correlation to intelligence: +.33 What does this mean? Portion sizes vary as well Einstein had abnormally large parietal lobes Environmental experiences impact Rat neural connections example Highly educated people die with 17% more

synapses than counterparts Other Environmental Influences Infants who suffer from extreme malnutrition during infancy average 20 I.Q. points lower than other children (Stock and Smythe, 1963) Toxins in the environment such as lead found in some paints are associated with reduced I.Q. (Needleman, 1990) Intelligence declines with family size; the fewer children there are the smarter you are likely to be (Zajonc, 1975) Intelligence declines with birth order; first-borns tend

to be brighter (Zajonc, 1975) I.Q. is negatively correlated with family risk factors, such as social class or absence of father figure (1989) Are There Multiple Intelligences? Factor Analysis statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie ones total score General Intelligence (g) factor that Spearman and others believed

underlies specific mental abilities measured by every task on an intelligence test Are There Multiple Intelligences? Savant Syndrome condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an amazing specific skill computation drawing Are There Multiple Intelligences?

Social Intelligence the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions critical part of social intelligence Brain Function and Intelligence People who can perceive the

stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests Stimulus Mask Question: Long side on left or right?

Assessing Intelligence Aptitude Test a test designed to predict a persons future performance aptitude is the capacity to learn Achievement Test a test designed to assess what a person has learned Assessing Intelligence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) most widely used intelligence test subtests

verbal performance (nonverbal) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) similar to WAIS, but for school children Assessing Intelligence- Sample Items from the WAIS VERBAL PERFORMANCE General Information

Similarities Arithmetic Reasoning Vocabulary Comprehension Digit Span Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Digit-Symbol Substitution From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977

Assessing Intelligence Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested standardization group Normal Curve the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes The Normal Curve

Number of scores Sixty-eight percent of people score within 15 points above or below 100 Ninety-five percent of all people fall within 30 points of 100

55 70 85 100 115 130 Wechsler intelligence score

145 Getting Smarter? Flynn Effect: IQ scores going up about 3 points per Assessing Intelligence Reliability the extent to which a test yields consistent

results assessed by consistency of scores on: two halves of the test alternate forms of the test retesting the same individual Validity the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to Assessing Intelligence Content Validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

driving test that samples driving tasks Criterion behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity Assessing Intelligence Predictive Validity success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict assessed by computing the

correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior also called criterion-related validity Assessing Intelligence Football 10 linemens 9 success Greater correlation over broad range of body weights

8 7 6 5 Little correlation within restricted range 4 3 2 1 0

180 250 290 Body weight in pounds As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes.

Therefore, the predictive power of aptitude tests scores diminish as students move up the educational ladder. The Dynamics of Intelligence Is intelligence stable across the lifespan or does it change? Intelligence test scores dont

stabilize until about age 7; after that about a +.66 correlation over time The Dynamics of Intelligence Mental Retardation a condition of limited mental ability indicated by intelligence scores below 70 produces difficulty in adapting to the

demands of life varies from mild to profound The Dynamics of Intelligence Down syndrome retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in genetic make-up The Dynamics of Intelligence Degrees of Mental Retardation

Level Typical Intelligence Scores Mild 50-70 85% Moderate 35-49

10 Severe 20-34 3-4 Below 20 1-2 Profound

Percentage of the Retarded Adaptation to Demands of Life May learn academic skills up to sixth-grade level. Adults may, with assistance, achieve self-supporting social and vocational skills. May progress to second-grade level. academically. Adults may contribute to their own support by labor in sheltered workshops. May learn to talk and perform simple work tasks under close supervision

but are generally unable to profit from vocational training. Require constant aid and supervision. Tracking From early age students are often tracked into gifted programs and remedial programs whats a potential problem with this? Self-Fulfilling Prophecy The Dynamics of Intelligence Creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas components of creativity expertise imaginative thinking skills venturesome personality intrinsic motivation creative environment Genetic Influences 1.0 Similarity of intelligence 0.9 scores 0.8

(correlation) 0.7 The most genetically similar people have the most similar scores 0.6 0.5

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 Identical twins reared together Identical twins reared

apart Fraternal twins reared together Siblings Unrelated reared individuals together reared together Genetic Influences

Heritability Similarity of intelligence scores (correlation) Adopted children and biological parents Adopted

children and adoptive parents the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes variability depends on range of populations and environments

studied Genetic Influences Environmental Influences The Schooling Effect Intelligence scores drop over the summer when students are not in school Group Differences Average IQ scores by racial groups Whites: Roughly 100

Blacks: Roughly 85 Hispanics: Roughly 92/93 Differences are diminishing over time What explains these differences? Group Differences Gender Differences Girls score higher on: Spelling Verbal Ability Nonverbal Memory Sensation (more sensitive) Detecting Emotion

Boys outnumber girls in special education, talk later, stutter more often Girls now match or surpass boys at math The Question of Bias Are intelligence tests biased? Depends on definition of biased, but Yes, often due to CULTURAL BIAS Chitling Test, Australian Aboriginie Test examples Stereotype Threat

A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Example: Women score higher on math tests when no male test-takers are in the room Group Differences Stereotype Threat A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Genetic Influences Group differences and environmental

Variation within group impact Variation within group Seeds Poor soil Fertile soil Difference within group Genetic Influences The Mental Rotation Test of Spatial Abilities Which two circles contains configuration of blocks

identical to the one in the circle at left? Standard Responses

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