Introduction to Humanities Monday, September 25th 9/25 Agenda Notes on Hegesias and the Cynics Introduction to Platos
Euthyphro Quiz on Platos Apology The Euthyphro Dilemma Today: The Subjective Horn A Note on Hegesias For Hegesias, the meaning of life
is to live without pain or distress. The Cyrenaics believed one pleasure is not better than another. Therefore, no need to choose. Just avoid pain and distress. Live simply, like the Cynics. Cynics and the path
Last week, we said that Cynics may miss out on some things because of their philosophy. One of the things we said was pathos. Thats true. In fact, they deliberately tried to be a-pathetic,
or apathetic, or without path. Quiz rules Nothing on your desk but the quiz. No talking. No electronic devices.
When finished, wait for everyone else to finish. Platos Euthyphro Takes place before Socrates trial. At this point, Socrates is being indicted on the charges of
corrupting the youth and impiety toward the gods. Socrates asks Euthyphro, a priest, to explain the concept of piety to him. What is a dilemma? What is a dilemma? What is an example
of a dilemma? Two-horned problem A dilemma is a problem whose solutions are all equally unfavorable. Dilemmas usually have two solutions, and usually those solutions
form a dichotomyone can do one or the other, but not both. The two solutions are sometimes represented as the horns of a bull. The Euthyphro Dilemma Is what the gods love good because
they love it, or do they love it because it is good? Making Sense HORN 1 HORN 2 Something is goodThe gods love something BECAUSE BECAUSE
the gods love it. it is good. (Whatever the gods (Something is good, love, that thing is and for that reason, good.) the gods love it.) The Subjective Horn
The subjective horn of the dilemma says that certain things are good because gods love them. If the person in power is allowed
to choose whatever he or she wants, what are the consequences? Some Consequences In general, POWER is all that matters, not truth and not what is
good. In religions, deities are sovereign. Autocratic, arbitrary tyranny. Fascismindividuals serve the state. No universal valuesjust names. Voluntarismthe strength of your will determines your effectiveness. Altar Call
If you are familiar with the Christian religion, either because youve attended a church, read about the religion, or watched a televised service, what is an altar call? Do all services have altar calls?
Is that normal in Christianity? Divine Election In the Judeo-Christian tradition, and in many other religious traditions, some people-groups believe they are the chosen
people. If a god chooses one people over others, is that fair, or can god do whatever he/she/it wants? Conversion Narrative In
early colonial America, the Puritan church emphasized the Calvinist doctrines of depravity, election, and irresistible grace. To be considered saved, one had to have had a conversion experience
Thomas Pynchons Preterite The Crying of Lot 49 (1965) Autocracy or Tyranny A monarchy (kingdom, empire, grand duchy) is the legitimate rule of a single individual in
accordance with the laws and traditions of the state. A tyranny is the irregular rule of a single individual who has somehow violated or disregarded the laws and traditions of the state. Autocrats, be careful Autocrats
are more subject to the opinion of their subjects than most people believe. If an autocrat becomes abusive, his or her subjects may delegitimize the government. This happens in fiction and in reality. https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=uT4ySwoh27Q The English Interregnum Began in 1649, with the execution of Charles I Led by Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector
Cromwell instituted Puritanism. Ended in 1660 with restoration of Charles II, lost son of Charles I. Fascism Generally Individuals exist for the sake of
the state, instead of the state existing for the sake of the individuals. Usually involves corporate power. Emphasizes national identity over personal and class-based identities. Italian Fascism
Education for Death During World War II, Walt Disney created propaganda films to help young people understand the war. One film, Education for Death, is based on a book by Gregor Ziemer,
a writer on German education. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=6vLrTNKk89Q The Problem of Universals Certain predicates represent universal
human values, such as justice, love, goodness, fairness. Nominalism says that these are not actual values, but mere words, and depend not on reality, but on the power of the one speaking them. Developed by Roscellinus (1050 1125 A.D.)
Consequences If justice and goodness are just words, what are the consequences? Who defines justice, rightness, goodness, and all of the other values to which we appeal?
Sophist Thrasymachus said that justice is the advantage of the stronger. Franz Kafka 1883-1924 Wrote The
Trial, The Castle. Explored the absurdity of social customs Two Kafka Stories The
Problem of Our Laws (1933) is a parable about the impossibility of knowing the laws. It concludes by saying law is whatever the nobles do. Before the Law (1915) is from The Trial and portrays a man trying to get justice from the law. https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=4v8M6q1AUAU Relevant Parts of the Film The Law stands not just for the courts, but for the universal administration of justice in the world.
Who is the gatekeeper? What keeps the man from entering the gate? Why is the gate only for the man? Life in a Nominalist World Is life possible in a strictly
nominalist world? Who should have power? What if people with equal degrees of power contradict one another? What does nominalism mean for us in our personal, private lives? Moral Psychology
Moral psychology is the study of the thought processes that inform, motivate, or originate action that is called right or wrong. Assuming the truth of the subjective horn of the dilemma,
our will motivates our actions. Arthur Schopenhauer 1788-1860 The World as Will and Representation
. Developed a philosophy called panthelism. Voluntarism The
only thing that matters is the strength of your will. You may be able to direct your will, but you cannot strengthen your will. Unsatisfied longing is the essential human experience. Life is just a constant cycle of craving and satiety.
Schopenhauers Solutions Most people will inevitably spend their lives driven to spend their willpower on trivial tasks, forever needing something to do. But some can find peace through self-sacrifice and aesthetic
contemplation. Volunteering and art appreciation. Doxastic Voluntarism Doxa means belief. Can we control what we believe? What if there were no evidence to
support a proposition? Could we still choose to believe it, simply through the force of our will? Would we be surprised or embarrassed if wrong? Voluntarist Logic Can
there be a voluntarist logic without universal terms? Formal logic studies the form of logical arguments, inference patterns, propositions, and parts of propositions. It is the study of valid inference. Symbolic Logic
Symbolic logic translates our English into an artificial, constructed language that helps with reasoning. The higher levels of symbolic logic become mathematical logic. Most people dont use symbolic
logic. Logic of Invention 1864-1937 Ferdinand Schiller Logic For Use: An Introduction to the
Voluntarist Theory of Knowledge. Non-formulaic Casuistry of Knowledge Began with Aristotle, but became widely used in 1500-1600s,
especially for theological purposes. Casuistry is a practical, widelyapplicable system of moral reasoning. Deals with practical cases and paradigms, or examples of how practical rules are applied. Example 1 (W) Borrowed objects should be
returned after use. (G) I borrowed this match and no (C) So I should go and longer need it. give it back. (R) Except a used match is not worth returning. Example 2
(W) Borrowed objects should be returned after use. (G) I borrowed this gun and no (C) So I should go and longer need it. give it back. (R) Except the owner may use it on me.
Forest products resulting from the CF belong entirely to the village communities' concerned. It management involves the participation and collaboration of various stakeholders including. Aim to (i) generate income in the community (ii) Improve the living conditions of the people...
Parts of Speech FOLDABLE! This foldable will help you learn the eight parts of speech and their jobs. Take out one piece of notebook paper with the holes intact and follow the instructions so you have a neat foldable that...
Awareness Clinic, courtesy of Cllr Mabhanga, manned by qualified health counselling personnel - I now know I still can live, move on and more-so, I will make it!!. With such leaders as Cllr Mabhanga, the world would be a better...
Complex Numbers Concept tests ... 3 centered at i The disk of radius 9 centered at the origin The disk of radius 9 centered at i The product of two analytic functions is analytic True False If z is a...
Neutral fats (triglycerides) Found in fat deposits. Source of stored energy. Composed of three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule. Saturated fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids. Figure 2.15a Lipids. Glycerol (a) Formation of a triglyceride. Fatty acid chains are bound...
Roxanna explained her daily regimen as a mill girl matter-of-factly: "I generally rise with the sun, and, after breakfast, take my wheel, which is my daily companion, and the evening is generally devoted to reading, writing, and knitting."This seems a...
Más frecuente a nivel de molares superiores Dens evaginatus Evaginatus: Tubérculo anómalo en superficie oclusal de premolares inf., bilateral. Dens in dente Dens Invaginatus (dens in dente), fosa palatina en lateral sup. profunda, y que está cubierta por esmalte, pudiendo...
regional and un human rights mechanism—opportunities for interraction with human rights defenders, civil society organisations, nhris and women led organisations Presented by Mrs. Franca Ofor ECOWAS was founded by the Treaty of 26 May 1975 entered into by 15 West...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!