Introduction to Humanities - HCC Learning Web

Introduction to Humanities - HCC Learning Web

Introduction to Humanities Monday, September 25th 9/25 Agenda Notes on Hegesias and the Cynics Introduction to Platos

Euthyphro Quiz on Platos Apology The Euthyphro Dilemma Today: The Subjective Horn A Note on Hegesias For Hegesias, the meaning of life

is to live without pain or distress. The Cyrenaics believed one pleasure is not better than another. Therefore, no need to choose. Just avoid pain and distress. Live simply, like the Cynics. Cynics and the path

Last week, we said that Cynics may miss out on some things because of their philosophy. One of the things we said was pathos. Thats true. In fact, they deliberately tried to be a-pathetic,

or apathetic, or without path. Quiz rules Nothing on your desk but the quiz. No talking. No electronic devices.

When finished, wait for everyone else to finish. Platos Euthyphro Takes place before Socrates trial. At this point, Socrates is being indicted on the charges of

corrupting the youth and impiety toward the gods. Socrates asks Euthyphro, a priest, to explain the concept of piety to him. What is a dilemma? What is a dilemma? What is an example

of a dilemma? Two-horned problem A dilemma is a problem whose solutions are all equally unfavorable. Dilemmas usually have two solutions, and usually those solutions

form a dichotomyone can do one or the other, but not both. The two solutions are sometimes represented as the horns of a bull. The Euthyphro Dilemma Is what the gods love good because

they love it, or do they love it because it is good? Making Sense HORN 1 HORN 2 Something is goodThe gods love something BECAUSE BECAUSE

the gods love it. it is good. (Whatever the gods (Something is good, love, that thing is and for that reason, good.) the gods love it.) The Subjective Horn

The subjective horn of the dilemma says that certain things are good because gods love them. If the person in power is allowed

to choose whatever he or she wants, what are the consequences? Some Consequences In general, POWER is all that matters, not truth and not what is

good. In religions, deities are sovereign. Autocratic, arbitrary tyranny. Fascismindividuals serve the state. No universal valuesjust names. Voluntarismthe strength of your will determines your effectiveness. Altar Call

If you are familiar with the Christian religion, either because youve attended a church, read about the religion, or watched a televised service, what is an altar call? Do all services have altar calls?

Is that normal in Christianity? Divine Election In the Judeo-Christian tradition, and in many other religious traditions, some people-groups believe they are the chosen

people. If a god chooses one people over others, is that fair, or can god do whatever he/she/it wants? Conversion Narrative In

early colonial America, the Puritan church emphasized the Calvinist doctrines of depravity, election, and irresistible grace. To be considered saved, one had to have had a conversion experience

Thomas Pynchons Preterite The Crying of Lot 49 (1965) Autocracy or Tyranny A monarchy (kingdom, empire, grand duchy) is the legitimate rule of a single individual in

accordance with the laws and traditions of the state. A tyranny is the irregular rule of a single individual who has somehow violated or disregarded the laws and traditions of the state. Autocrats, be careful Autocrats

are more subject to the opinion of their subjects than most people believe. If an autocrat becomes abusive, his or her subjects may delegitimize the government. This happens in fiction and in reality.

v=uT4ySwoh27Q The English Interregnum Began in 1649, with the execution of Charles I Led by Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector

Cromwell instituted Puritanism. Ended in 1660 with restoration of Charles II, lost son of Charles I. Fascism Generally Individuals exist for the sake of

the state, instead of the state existing for the sake of the individuals. Usually involves corporate power. Emphasizes national identity over personal and class-based identities. Italian Fascism

Education for Death During World War II, Walt Disney created propaganda films to help young people understand the war. One film, Education for Death, is based on a book by Gregor Ziemer,

a writer on German education. v=6vLrTNKk89Q The Problem of Universals Certain predicates represent universal

human values, such as justice, love, goodness, fairness. Nominalism says that these are not actual values, but mere words, and depend not on reality, but on the power of the one speaking them. Developed by Roscellinus (1050 1125 A.D.)

Consequences If justice and goodness are just words, what are the consequences? Who defines justice, rightness, goodness, and all of the other values to which we appeal?

Sophist Thrasymachus said that justice is the advantage of the stronger. Franz Kafka 1883-1924 Wrote The

Trial, The Castle. Explored the absurdity of social customs Two Kafka Stories The

Problem of Our Laws (1933) is a parable about the impossibility of knowing the laws. It concludes by saying law is whatever the nobles do. Before the Law (1915) is from The Trial and portrays a man trying to get justice from the law.

v=4v8M6q1AUAU Relevant Parts of the Film The Law stands not just for the courts, but for the universal administration of justice in the world.

Who is the gatekeeper? What keeps the man from entering the gate? Why is the gate only for the man? Life in a Nominalist World Is life possible in a strictly

nominalist world? Who should have power? What if people with equal degrees of power contradict one another? What does nominalism mean for us in our personal, private lives? Moral Psychology

Moral psychology is the study of the thought processes that inform, motivate, or originate action that is called right or wrong. Assuming the truth of the subjective horn of the dilemma,

our will motivates our actions. Arthur Schopenhauer 1788-1860 The World as Will and Representation

. Developed a philosophy called panthelism. Voluntarism The

only thing that matters is the strength of your will. You may be able to direct your will, but you cannot strengthen your will. Unsatisfied longing is the essential human experience. Life is just a constant cycle of craving and satiety.

Schopenhauers Solutions Most people will inevitably spend their lives driven to spend their willpower on trivial tasks, forever needing something to do. But some can find peace through self-sacrifice and aesthetic

contemplation. Volunteering and art appreciation. Doxastic Voluntarism Doxa means belief. Can we control what we believe? What if there were no evidence to

support a proposition? Could we still choose to believe it, simply through the force of our will? Would we be surprised or embarrassed if wrong? Voluntarist Logic Can

there be a voluntarist logic without universal terms? Formal logic studies the form of logical arguments, inference patterns, propositions, and parts of propositions. It is the study of valid inference. Symbolic Logic

Symbolic logic translates our English into an artificial, constructed language that helps with reasoning. The higher levels of symbolic logic become mathematical logic. Most people dont use symbolic

logic. Logic of Invention 1864-1937 Ferdinand Schiller Logic For Use: An Introduction to the

Voluntarist Theory of Knowledge. Non-formulaic Casuistry of Knowledge Began with Aristotle, but became widely used in 1500-1600s,

especially for theological purposes. Casuistry is a practical, widelyapplicable system of moral reasoning. Deals with practical cases and paradigms, or examples of how practical rules are applied. Example 1 (W) Borrowed objects should be

returned after use. (G) I borrowed this match and no (C) So I should go and longer need it. give it back. (R) Except a used match is not worth returning. Example 2

(W) Borrowed objects should be returned after use. (G) I borrowed this gun and no (C) So I should go and longer need it. give it back. (R) Except the owner may use it on me.

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