Introduction to Chemistry Mr. Christopherson Normal Community High School www.unit5.org/chemistry Whether you can doand a thing Problemsyou callbelieve forth our courage our wisdom; or believe you cant,our courage and our wisdom. indeed, they create you arebecause right. of problems that we grow mentally itDont is only be afraid to take a big step and spiritually. It is through the pain of if one is indicated.
Henry Ford, 1863-1947 American Car Manufacturer resolving problems Youconfronting cant crossand a chasm we learn. in two smallthat jumps. David Lloyd George, 1863-1945 British Prime Minister and Statesman M. Scott Peck, b. 1936 American Psychiatrist and Writer All through my life, the new sights of Nature Believe that life is worth living, made me rejoice like a child. and your belief will help create the fact. Marie American Curie, 1867-1934 Polish-Born French Chemist William James, 1842-1910 Psychologist and Philospher Chemistry is the study of matter and the transformations it can
undergo Matter is anything that occupies space. Chemistry Chemistry Purpose with withaa Interactive Periodic Table 7 1 C H 1 6 H e S Ir O N Mn <
N 16 77 8 7 25 The Human Element H He 1 2 1 2 3 Li Be B C
N O F Ne 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Al Si P S Cl
Ar 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg 11 4 K 19 5 7 Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br
Kr 23 24 35 36 I Xe 53 54 20 21 22 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In 39
40 41 42 49 50 51 Hf Ta W 72 73 74 37 6 12 38 Cs Ba
55 56 Fr Ra 87 88 25 43 26 44 Re Os 75 76 27 28 29
47 30 32 33 46 Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi 77 78 81 82 83 80 34
Sn Sb Te 45 79 48 31 52 Po At Rn 84 85 86 Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt 104 105 106 107 108 109 La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
57 58 59 Ac Th Pa 89 90 91 60 U 92 61 62 63 64 65 66 Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf 93 94
95 96 97 98 67 68 69 70 71 Es Fm Md No Lr 99 100 101 102 103 Natural Science Physical Science
Physics Chemistry Earth and Space Science Geology Astronomy Meteorology Life Science Botany Ecology Oceanography Natural science covers a very broad range of knowledge. Wysession, Frank, Yancopoulos, Physical Science Concepts in Action, 2004, page 4 Zoology Genetics Table of Contents Introduction to Chemistry Introduction / Perceptions (17 slides) Safety (21 slides) Pure vs. Applied Science (10 slides) Scientific Method (27 slides) Lab Equipment (6 slides)
Alchemy vs. Chemistry (30 slides) Manipulating Numerical Data (11 slides) Conversion Factors and Unit Cancellation (6 slides) Simple Math with Conversion Factors (8 slides) Scientific Notation (18 slides) Using the Exponent Key (17 slides) Basic Concepts in Chemistry (7 slides) Metric System (10 slides) Measurement (23 slides) Essential Math (14 slides) A Lost Child Keeping Warm Once upon a time a small child became lost. Because the weather was cold, he decided to gather material for a fire. As he brought objects back to his campfire, he discovered that some of them burned and some of them didnt burn. To avoid collecting useless substances, the child began to keep track of those objects that burned and those that did not. He proposed a possible generalization. Perhaps: Cylindrical objects burn. This procedure if one of the elementary logical thought processes by which information is systematized. It is called inductive reasoning (a general rule is framed on the basis of a collection of individual observations (or facts)). Jaffe, New World of Chemistry, 1955, page 3-4 Cylindrical Objects Burn WILL BURN WONT BURN Tree limbs
Rocks Broom handles Blackberries Pencils Marbles Chair legs Paperweights Flagpoles Jaffe, New World of Chemistry, 1955, page 3-4 Using his generalization, the boy gathered more substances to burn. He collected three pieces of pipe, two ginger ale bottles, and the axle from an old car, while leaving a huge cardboard box full of newspapers. During the long cold night that followed he drew these conclusions: (1) The cylindrical shape of a burnable object may not be intimately associated with its flammability after all. (2) Even though the cylindrical rule is no longer useful, tree limbs, broom handles, pencils, and other burnables still burn. (3) Hed better bring the list along tomorrow. New idea: Perhaps Wooden objects burn. Jaffe, New World of Chemistry, 1955, page 3-4 The Six Levels Evaluation Evaluation
Synthesis Synthesis Analysis Analysis Application Application Comprehension Comprehension Knowledge Knowledge of Thought Success is a journey, not a destination. -Ben Sweetland Successful students make mistakes, but they dont quit. They learn from them. -Ralph Burns Success consist of a series of little daily efforts. -Marie McCuillough Food Elements Removed from the soil by various plants Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Magnesium Calcium
Sulfur Pounds Per Acre 30 20 10 Corn Jaffe, New World of Chemistry, 1955, page 468 Hay Wheat Cotton Oats Potatoes Tobacco Medium alkaline Slightly alkaline Very Slightly alkaline
Very Slightly acid Slightly acid Medium acid Strongly acid Table: Soybean nutrient requirements in pounds/40 bushels Strongly alkaline Nutrient 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8
Acidity / Alkalinity (pH) Most nutrients are obtained from residual sources http://www.vaes.vt.edu/tidewater/soybean/soyproduction/soyguide.html#L4 Job Skills for the Future Evaluate and Analyze Think Critically Solve Math Problems Organize and Use References Synthesize Ideas Apply Ideas to New Areas Be Creative Make Decisions with Incomplete Information Communicate in Many Modes Chemistry will develop ALL of these skills in YOU! Youve Finally Met Your Match A Description of a Burning Candle A photograph of a burning candle is shown 1 in the upper right corner. The candle is cylindrical 2 and has a diameter3 of about 3 cm. The length of the candle was initially about 16 centimeters 4, and it
changed slowly5 during observation, decreasing about 1 cm in one hour 6. The candle is made of a translucent7, white8 solid9 which has a slight odor10 and no taste11. It is soft enough to be scratched with the fingernail12. There is a wick13 which extends from top to bottom14 of the candle along its central axis15 and protrudes about 5 mm above the top of the candle 16. The wick is made of three strands of string braided together 17. A candle is lit by holding a source of flame close to the wick for a few seconds. Thereafter the source of flame can be removed and the flame sustains itself at the wick 18. The burning candle makes no sound19. While burning, the body of the candle remains cool to the touch 20 except near the top. Within about 1.5 cm of the top the candle is warm 21 (but not hot) and sufficiently soft to mold easily22. The flame flickers in response to air currents 23 and tends to become quite smoky while flickering 24. In the absence of air currents, the flame is of the form shown in the photograph, though it retains some movement at all times25. The flame begins about 2 mm above the top of the candle 26, and at its base the flame has a blue tint 27. Immediately around the wick in a region about 2 mm wide and extending about 5 mm above the top of the wick 28 the flame is dark29. This dark region is roughly conical in shape30. Around this zone and extending about 1 cm above the dark zone is a region which emits yellow light31, bright but not blinding32. The flame has rather sharply defined sides33 but a ragged top34. The wick is white where it emerges from the candle 35, but from the base of the flame to the end of the wick 36 it is black, appearing burnt, except for the last 0,5 cm, where it glows red37. The wick curls over about 3 mm from its end 38. As the candle becomes shorter, the wick shortens too, so as to extend roughly a constant length above the top of the candle 39. Heat is emitted by the flame40, enough so that it becomes uncomfortable in 10 to 20 seconds if one holds his finger 10 cm to the side of the quiet flame 41 or 10 12 cm above the flame42. OConnor Davis, MacNab, McClellan, CHEMISTRY Experiments and Principles 1982, page 462, Dual Perceptions Dual Perceptions Dual Perceptions
Stack of Blocks Unit 1 Introduction to Chemistry Internet web site: www.unit5.org/chemistry www.unit5.org/christjs Click to see VIDEO A Colorful Demonstration: The Remsen Reaction
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