Introduction of Radiographic Technology - Weebly

Introduction of Radiographic Technology - Weebly

Introduction of Ra diographic Technol ogy I. Radiographic Terminology II. Basic Imaging Principles III. Positioning Principles IV. Digital Imaging I. Radiographic Termino logy General Terms

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Radiograph Radiography Radiograph vs. x-ray film Radiographic images Radiographic examination or procedure Anatomic position

I. Radiographic Termino logy Body Plane Section and Lines Sagittal plane Coronal plane Horizontal plane Oblique plane Base plane Occlusal plane I. Radiographic Termino logy

Body Surfaces and Parts For the body anterior posterior For the hands and feet plantar palmar dorsum

I. Radiographic Termino logy General Body Positions Supine Prone Erect (stand or sit) Recumbent Lying down in any position Dorsal (supine) Ventral (prone) Lateral

I. Radiographic Termino logy General Body Positions Trendelenburg Sims position Fowlers position Lithotomy position I. Radiographic Termino logy

Specific Body Positions The body part closest to the IR (oblique and lateral) or by the surface on which t he patient is lying Lateral Right/Left Oblique LPO/RPO LAO/RAO

I. Radiographic Termino logy Decubitus (Lie on a horizontal surface a nd always used with horizontal x-ray be am) I. Radiographic Termino logy Radiographic Projection The direction or path of the CR of the x-ra y beam Anteroposterior

Posteroanterior AP or PA Oblique Mediolateral or Lateromedial I. Radiographic Termino logy Additional Special Use Projection Te rms Axial Superoinferior axial Inferosuperior axial AP/PA axial

I. Radiographic Termino logy Tangential AP axial (Lordotic) Transthoracic lateral I. Radiographic Termino logy Dorsoplantar / Plantodorsal Parietoacnthial / Acanthioparietal

Submentovertex /Verticosubmental I. Radiographic Termino logy Relationship Terms Meidal vs. Lateral Proximal vs. Distal Cephalad vs.Caudad I. Radiographic Termino logy

Terms Related to Movements Flexion/Extension/Hyperextension Ulnar deviation/Radial deviation Dorsiflexion/Plantar flexion of foot I. Radiographic Termino logy Terms Related to Movements Eversion (Valgus)/Inversion(Varus) Medial /Lateral Rotation

I. Radiographic Termino logy Terms Related to Movements Abduction/Adduction Supination/Pronation Protraction/Retration I. Radiographic Termino logy Terms Related to Movements Elevation/Depression

Circumduction Tilt/Rotation I. Radiographic Termino logy Summary of Potentially Misused Ter ms Position restricted to the discussion of the patients p hysical position

Projection restricted to the discussion of the path of the central ray View restricted to the discussion of the a radiograp h or image 3 II. Basic Imaging Princi ples

Radiographic Criteria a 2 1 6 Structures Show(1~6) Position Collimator and CR Exposure Criteria Image Markers

c 4 5 b II. Basic Imaging Princi ples Image Markers and Patient Identific ation Patient ID and Date Anatomic side marker Additional markers or Identification

II. Basic Imaging Princi ples Radiographic Technique and Image Quality Exposure factors kVp mA S (excepted when AEC is used )

Image Quality Factors Density Contrast Detail Distortion II. Basic Imaging Princi ples Density

Definition the amount of blackening of the pro cessed image Controlling factor mAs / kVp / SID Change rule Underexposure Doubling mAs Exception DR and CR (controlled by image pro cess technique) II. Basic Imaging Princi ples Contrast

Definition the difference in density on adjac ent areas of a radiographic image Purpose make the anatomic detail of a radi ographic image more visible Controlling factor kVp (15% increase as mAs double) II. Basic Imaging Princi ples

Detail Definition the visible sharpness of structure on the image Controlling factor Geometric factors : focal spot size/SID/OID Film/Screen Speed Motion II. Basic Imaging Princi ples

Distortion Definition the misrepresentation of ob ject size or shape as projected onto film (because of beam divergence and SID) II. Basic Imaging Princi ples Distortion Controlling factor SID OID/Focal spot size

II. Basic Imaging Princi ples Alignment (object film CR) II. Basic Imaging Princi ples Anode Heel Effect Intensity of cathode > anode Pronounced at

Shorter SID Larger IR Small focal spot III. Positioning Principle s Professional Ethics and Patient Care CAMRT (1997.06) Canadian Association of Medical Radiation Technol ogists

ASRT (1994.07) American Society of Radiological Technologists Protocol and Order for General Diagnostic Radiographic Procedures Room and Exam Preparation III. Positioning Principle s

Positioning Method Fixed vs. Floating tabletop Cassette tray and Bucky grid Beam restricting device Illuminated adjustable collimator Positive Beam Limitation (PBL) III. Positioning Principle s Positioning Sequences

Traditional Radiography Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4

Table With bucky no bucky Standing bucky III. Positioning Principle s Essential Projections

Routine (Basic) Projections Commonly taken on all patients who can co operate fully Special (Alternate) Projections Better demonstrate specific anatomic or cer tain pathology The patients who cant cooperate fully III. Positioning Principle

s Principle for Determining Positionin g Routine A minimum of two projections Problem of anatomic structures being superimposed Localization of lesions or foreign bodies Determination of alignment of fracture

A minimum of three projections Skeletal system involving joints AP PA Oblique III. Positioning Principle s Topographic Positioning Landmarks Done gently Patient should be informed

Body Habitus III. Positioning Principle s Viewing Medical Images Radiographic Images AP/PA/Oblique

Viewing as patient is facing the viewer Marked by R/L III. Positioning Principle s Lateral Decubitus chests and abdomen

Viewing from the same perspective as the x-ray t ube Marked R/L by the side of the patient closet to th e IR Viewing from the same perspective as the x-ray t ube Crosswise and pt upside on view box upside Upper/lower limb

R/L marker appears right-side-up Limbs hanging down Digits up III. Positioning Principle s CT or MRI Images The patients right is to the viewers left IV. Digital Imaging

PACS (Picture Archiving and Commu nication System) IV. Digital Imaging CR (Computed Radiography) Key components

Exposure factor( AEC is not used) Image plate (repeatedly) IP reader (laser scanner , 20s) Workstation Compensation 500% overexposure 80% underexposure Positioning consideration

Center sampling technique Accurate and close collimation Lead masking for multiple images Grid IV. Digital Imaging DR (Digital Radiography ) Flat panel receptor (direct conversion method )

Digital Bucky grid 17*17 Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) kVp m A manual s auto IV. Digital Imaging DR in CGMH

Digital image unit Quality Control for Proce ssor Set up initial standard (base line) In most stable condition of the processor Individual O.D. of 21 steps (average of five days me

asurements) Find O.D. 1.2 1.2 Mid-density (MD) and Mid-step # Find O.D. 1.2 2.2 High-density (HD) and High-ste p# Find O.D. 1.2 0.45 Low-density (LD) and Low-step # Daily QA MD < 0.15 (measurement - base line) DD < 0.15 (measurement - base line) (DD=HD-LD)

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