Intro to Puritan Literature ENG 2327 Janice Whitehead Brief History 1493 Spanish inquisition Christian army forms to remove Moors from Spain Spain is comparable to Nazi Germany for approximately 10 years. Natural Slavery becomes the norm. Many flavors of Catholicism develop Aristotle on Natural Slavery
Slavery -- natural or conventional? Aristole's theory of slavery is found in Book I, Chapters iii through vii of the Politics. and in Book VII of the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle raises the question of whether slavery is natural or conventional. He asserts that the former is the case. So, Aristotle's theory of slavery holds that some people are naturally slaves and others are naturally masters. Thus he says: But is there any one thus intended by nature to be a slave, and for whom such a condition is expedient and right, or rather is not all slavery a violation of nature? There is no difficulty in answering this question, on grounds both of reason and of fact. For that some should rule and others be ruled is a thing not only necessary, but expedient; from the hour of their birth, some are marked out for subjection, others for rule. This suggests that anyone who is ruled must be a slave, which does
not seem at all right. Still, given that this is so he must state what characteristics a natural slave must have -- so that he or she can be recognized as such a being. Who is marked out for subjugation, and who for rule? This is where the concept of "barbarian" shows up in Aristotle's account. Columbus Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy in 1451. He loved the sea. He became a sailor when he was fifteen years old. After many years and many travels, Columbus became an excellent sea captain. [He had many maps that showed that the earth was round. The maps showed that it was possible to sail west to get to the East.] Columbus's maps showed that Japan was across the Atlantic
Ocean, 2,700 miles away. Columbus did not know that his maps were wrong. Japan is really 12,200 miles to the west! And North and South America are in the way. Columbus asked King Henry of Portugal for ships and sailors to discover the way to China and Japan. King Henry said no. Then Columbus went to Spain and asked Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand. There was a war in Spain. "Wait until the war is over," Queen Isabella said. Columbus Columbus had to wait many years. The war was over, at last, in 1492. Then Queen Isabella said yes. The city of Palos gave Columbus three ships: the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. Queen Isabella gave Columbus
money and ninety sailors. The three little ships sailed from Palos on August 3. First they stopped at the Canary Islands for more food and water. They left the Canaries on September 6. The weather was good and the trip was easy. Columbus promised the sailors that they would all become rich. At first the sailors were excited. But day after day passed and they did not see land. The sailors became afraid. After four weeks the sailors wanted to go back. They thought they would die if they didn't turn around. Columbus Columbus said, "If we don't find land in three days, we will go back." He offered a prize to the first man to see land. Two times
someone shouted, "Land!" but it was a mistake. At last, they saw some birds. They followed the birds. On the thirty-fifth day, two hours after midnight, a sailor on the Pinta shouted "Land!" He could see land by the light of the moon. That morning, October 12, all the men went ashore. They were very happy to be on land. They kissed the sand on the beach. The people who lived on the island were the Arawak. They called their island Guahanal. The Arawaks came to see the large ships and the sailors. They were amazed at the sailors' strange clothes. They were amazed at the beards on the sailors' faces. Columbus The Arawaks thought the ships and the men had sailed down from the sky. They brought the sailors presents, food, and parrots.
Columbus and his men gave presents to the Arawaks, too. He tried to ask them if this island was part of Japan. "They could only use sign language. Columbus thought that he was in the Indies. He called the people Indians. Columbus named the island San Salvador. He claimed San Salvador for the King and Queen of Spain. He did not ask the Arawaks if they would like to belong to Spain. Columbus sailed to other islands. He left forty sailors on the island of Hispaniola. He returned home to Spain with just two ships. He took home many things to show Queen Isabella. He brought parrots, pearls, gold, and six "Indians. When the two little ships returned, the people in Spain were very, very excited. As the ships came into the port of Palos, cannons Columbus?
Columbus: First American Hero Often times, Columbus is presented as the first American hero; his divinely inspired voyage romanticized by tales of life-threatening storms, pending mutiny and 11th hour salvation. Of the maiden discovery voyage itself, however - as is the case for much of his early life - little is known. Even the place of his birth is disputed (though it is widely accepted by historians that Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy). If not for Columbus, the World Would Still be Flat One of the biggest myths surrounding Columbus is the flat earth theory and his being instrumental in disproving or debunking that the world was flat.
The fact is most people - Europeans and Native Americans included - already knew that the world was round and had known so for hundreds of years. The popularity of the notion that Columbus was instrumental in aiding to enlighten the world as to its roundness can be accredited to Washington Irvin's best selling 1828 Columbus biography. Anthropologist Jack Weatherford states that there existed measurements of the earth's diameter and Old World Exploitation of the New World Recently, much has been written and opined on regarding Columbus' exploitation of the native people of the Americas. James W. Loewen, in Lies My Teacher Told Me, writes of the
impact that Columbus had regarding race relations as well as his influence over the transformation of the New World. Loewen states that Christopher Columbus established "two phenomena... the taking of land, wealth, and labor from the Indigenous people" which lead to " their near extermination and the transatlantic slave trade which created a social underclass". How Columbus viewed the natives of the land he'd "discovered" went from complimentary and positive to hostile and critical. In a journal entry the day following his landing at Guanahani (now San Salvador), October 13, 1492, Columbus writes of the Arawak as being a fast-learning, intelligent people. Columbus was also impressed by their physical appearance referring to them as attractive and well built. In his later writings, while trying to justify war and
Two Perceptions of Columbus James Muldoon's article in Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History, expresses the duality behind the way Columbus has been perceived, "people once saw him as initiating the civilizing and Christianizing process in the Americas, but now people condemn him for initiating slavery and genocide." It is not impossible for both of these portraits of Columbus to be accurate. Whether viewed in a positive or negative light, Columbus' voyage across the Atlantic not only expanded the empire of Spain and opened trade routes, but it also divided time into pre and post
Columbian eras. It is not a matter of political correctness to know and comprehend the Sources Sources: "Christopher Columbus". Funk & Wagnall's New World Encyclopedia. 2002 Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. Touchtone. New York. 2007 Muldoon, James. "Christopher Columbus". Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History. 2005. Vol. 2 p390 Tunnell, Michael O. "Books in the Classroom: Columbus and Historical Perspective". Horn Book Magazine. Mar92, Vol. 68 Issue 2, p244-247, 4p
Weatherford, Jack. " Examining the Reputation of Christopher Columbus". Baltimore Evening Sun. Retrieved 2009-07-16 Read more at Suite101: Christopher Columbus: Little Known Facts Behind the 15th Century Explorer and His Voyage Voyages of Columbus 1st voyage to Haiti and Dominican Republic laid foundation for Spains control 2nd voyage Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Jamaica, Cuba, Lesser Antilles established (attempted) colony on Hispanola 3rd voyage Trinidad, Venezuela, Hispaniola arrested and sent back to Spain
4th voyage Central America explored Central America 1513 1. Common cold kills 6,000 people 2. Ponce de Leon reaches Florida 3. Vasco Nunez de Balboa found Pacific Ocean 4. Cabrillo sailed California coast 5. De Soto discovered Mississippi River 6. Coronado explored the Southwest Aztecs, Incas and Mayans wiped out within 10 years 1502 first slave trade Spanish brought 1st Africans to work the West Indies plantations.
Moving on 1542 Forbidding the enslavement of Native Americans 1588 Spain loses control over seas to the west 1620 Pilgrims leave Holland and settle Plymouth 1630 Puritans leave England and settle Mass. Bay New England communities successful 1. Brought women ensuring population 2. Middle class willing to work 3. Wanted to build a city on a hill. New World Colonial period to 1700 4 to 6 million people residing in North America / speaking
1,000 + languages + otherness Settlers were Spanish, French, and English Spanish and French came in to NA to change religion and take riches people had deep roots in religion women played important role in Native American cultures oral traditions = performance common thread with African Americans Spanish colonization ruthless / colonizers French furs for trade / natural resources English religious / Gods Vision New World Cultures Ethnocentric
Go with your group Polytheistic = many gods Iroquois gave women prominent religious positions Mayan inventing writing, math, and calendar Native stories were oral and acted out New World Cultures Cabeza de Vaca Lands in Florida and walks to New Mexico. 1st person to write American literature Mestizo literature: merges captivity narrative w
immigrant story The apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe appears to a poor Indian at Tepeyac, a hill northwest of Mexico City in 1531. New World Cultures De la Cruz Writing involves Mexican motifs rather than Spanish or Castellan. Chesapeake Bay Settlement John Smith = good organizer Problem = no one wants to work
No work = no eat Recognized fallacy of European views Frethorne account http://www.virtualjamestown.org/frethorne.htm l Puritans / Pilgrims Pilgrims were separatists who wanted to separate themselves from the Church of England. They also wanted to separate themselves from those who were not believers, the damned. Pilgrims believed they were elected by God for salvation and they wanted to worship only with other saints who had also been saved by God. Puritans were followers of the teachings of Calvin and believed, like the Separatists, that man was
born in sin and they all bore the guilt of Adam and Eve. To become saved, they would have to prove they were worthy while here on earth. To be worthy one would prosper, be faithful, and lead a successful life. Instead of separating from the Church of England, they wanted to purify the Church of the influence of the Catholic Church within the Anglican (Episcopal) Church, thus the name, Puritans. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_Pilgrims_and_Puritans#ixzz18igrMNGa The Puritans were radical Protestants, a group that developed after the Reformation The Protestant Reformation, also called the Protestant Revolt
or simply The Reformation was the European Christian reform movement that established Protestantism as a constituent branch of contemporary Christianity. It was led by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other Protestants. The selfdescribed "reformers" (who "protested") objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, and created new national Protestant churches. The Catholics responded with a Counter Reformation, led by the Jesuit order, which reclaimed large parts of Europe, such as Poland. In general, northern Europe turned Protestant, and southern Europe remained Catholic, while fierce battles that turned into warfare took place in the center. The largest of the new denominations were the Anglicans (based in England), the Lutherans (based in Germany and Scandinavia), and the Reformed churches (based in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Scotland).
Deeply Religious The Puritans were literate and well-educated, and Puritan authors were respected and regularly published in London. While the Bible was indeed their primary reading material, they expounded upon its themes through poetry and prose http://www.ehow.com/list_6883447_puritan-literaturecharacteristics.html Poetry: Judgment and Struggles Puritan poetry expressed themes such as:
the unworthiness of mankind before God the meaninglessness of possessions the danger of vanity the difficulties of life in a frontier setting http://www.ehow.com/list_6883447_puritan-literature-characteristics.html Poetry: Judgment and Struggles Most important Puritan poets: Ann Bradstreet Michael Wigglesworth In a poem dealing with a fire that consumed her home, Bradstreet expressed the insignificance of
material things. Her later poetry reflects her personal struggles, such as the loss of her grandson Simon and two other grandchildren. Wigglesworth wrote "Day of Doom," which was the Puritan equivalent of a best-seller. In this work, a "crude ballad meter," Wigglesworth Prose: Judgment and Victory Sermons and histories were the most popular forms of Puritan prose, and these focused on theological themes as well. Jonathan Edwards Edwards' "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is one of the best-known sermons of all time. He
employed the natural and agricultural imagery with which his audience was familiar to describe and communicate God's wrath. Prose: Judgment and Victory Reverend Cotton Mather was one of the three judges at the Salem Witch Trials Among his 450 publications is "Magnalia Christi Americana," an epic-style history listing and describing "Christ's great works in America." Mather included quotations from classical Greek
and Roman authors in their native languages, as well as scripture quotations in both Hebrew and English in this lofty declaration of Christ's victories in the New World. Nonfiction: God Versus Satan Cotton Mather also wrote "The Wonders of the Invisible World," an account and defense of the Salem Witch Trials. Published in 1693 considered nonfiction because it was an account of things Mather saw as a judge presiding over the trials. Its major theme is the struggle of God against Satan. The concept of spectral evidence---the effect that so-called
witches had on others in the courtroom---figures heavily into this work. The best-known sections are "The Trial of Bridget Bishop," an excerpt detailing the trial of the first person to be accused, tried and executed, and a section explaining the witch problem as Satan's wrath toward the Puritans for bringing God into a formerly pagan land. http://www.ehow.com/list_6883447_puritan-literature-characteristics.html The Massachusetts Bay Frontier? The first capital of the Massachusetts Colony established by John Winthrop. Frontier towns were guarded by a garrison and soldiers. Beyond these demarcations, protection was not established
by the king. According to Jackson Turner in his publication "The First Official Frontier of the Massachusetts Bay," the General Court of Massachusetts from March 1694 to 1695 included Wells, York, Kittery, Amesbury, Haverhill, Dunstable, Chelmsford, Groton, Lancaster, Marlborough and Deerfield as frontier towns. From 1699 to 1700, the General Court of Massachusetts added Brookfield, Mendon, Woodstock, Salisbury, Andover, Billerica, Hatfield, Hadley, Westfield and Northampton. Background The Massachusetts Bay Charter of 1629
established a governing body that consisted of one governor, one deputy governor, and 18 assistants. This body of legislators took care of general business and governing the people. The people elected Thomas Goffe as deputy governor and Mathewe Cradocke as first governor. The rules and regulations did not conflict with the policies of Britain. The area covered by this would later become part of the frontier of Massachusetts Bay. History King Charles, the son of James I, limited the power of Parliament in Britain.
As a result, a group of Puritan businessmen and Pilgrims ventured to the New World to seek economic fortune and religious freedom. The first colonies they founded in the late 1620s were Salem and Cape Ann, both in Massachusetts. The Cambridge Agreement of 1629 ensured these voyagers would have control of the lands they settled, and they would control trade. First Governor In 1628, King Charles granted land to a group of Puritans under the leadership of John Winthrop and Thomas Dudley. John Winthrop became the first governor of
Massachusetts Colony and he established Boston as its capital. An ardent Puritan, he did not tolerate dissenters. Boston On March 4,1629, King Charles gave the Council at Plymouth the power to rule and govern all the lands from 40 to 48 degrees latitude. This included the ports, rivers, mines, islands and all resources in that area. King Charles also granted Sir Henry Rosewell, Sir John Young, knights, Thomas Southcott, John Humphrey, John Endecott, and Simon Whetcombe and their heirs the area between Merrimack and the Charles River known as Massachusetts. Harvard University In 1636, the Great and General Council of the Massachusetts Bay Colony voted to establish Harvard College, named after its first benefactor, John Harvard. Students followed the course of study that resembled that of a British classic
education. Puritan philosophy also dictated the manner in which professors instructed students. As of 2010, Harvard lists more than 40 Nobel laureates and seven presidents among its graduates. By Joy Gorence, eHow Contributor updated: July 26, 2010
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