International marketing theories - Masarykova univerzita
International marketing theories Why I am successful, will I be successful? Basis of success at home strengths, resources and competences applicable abroad? Weaknesses at home? Opportunities and threats at home and abroad? what are the sources of the successand competitive advantage of firm? COUNTRY- SPECFIC ADVANTAGES SPECIFIC ADVANTAGES FIRM-
COUNTRY-SPECIFIC ADVANTAGES theories Tomatoes, shoes, butter, cars, textile and cloth, cosmetics, alcohol beverages import export Austria,Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy, Poland, Spain, China, Finland, France, Germany.. WHY ???????? BENEFITS FOR WHOM??? YOUR COUNTRY which comparative (or absolute) advantage?
ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE ONE COUNTRY PRODUCES PRODUCTS BETTER OR MORE CHEAPLY (OR LESS COSTLY) THAN THE OTHER Comparative advantage free trade between two countries yields economic pay-offs to the countries (different endowments of resources, country production involves less sacrifice in the output compared to other country specialization Ricardo: COMPARATIVE (RELATIVE) ADV. - one country may be better in producing many products but should produce only what it produces best REASONS FOR EXPORT + BENEFITS Country benefits Import can help save precious domestic sources Not enough or no domestic sources Competition Grater quantity and variety
of goods customers Innovation technologies knowledge Lower prices employment Customer benefits Competition Grater quantity and variety of goods for customers Lower prices NEGATIVES Countrys balance of payment Labour force unemployment ..
THEORIESBUT!!! Developed countries trade more among themselves than with developing countries Cars from Germany, Italy and France are imported to France, Italy and Germany Born globals international new ventures - what and why? National competitive advantage Michael Porter diamond of national advantage - 4 factors determining CA/disadvantage: Firm strategy, structure and rivalry
Factor conditions Demand conditions Related and supporting industries Diamond of national advantage (more possibilities to stay competitive) book 1990 The Competitive Advantage of Nations Factor conditions nations position in factor of production (skilled labour, infrastructure..)degree of mobility = (climate physical infrastructure natural resources educational system human resources
technological infrastructure software, com. network capital) Demand conditions nature of the home demand Related and supporting industries internationally competitive suppliers and supporters existence or absence Firm strategy, structure and rivalry the conditions in the nation governing how companies are created, organized and managed and the nature of home rivalry The international product life cycle (IPLC) Raymond Vernon, 1966
Examples??? What in management and in the international marketing activities is influenced by IPLC? The new trade theory (in 1970s) looks at the benefits of economies of scale. only a few firms will be able to prosper in any one industry - countries have a trade pattern influenced by the profile of the large firms that they possess - + these firms must be first movers helps to build up market share and obtain economies of scale - differences in knowledge, skills, abilities, competences REGIONAL CLUSTERS
EXAMPLES????????? Country-of origin effects quality perception of products differ by product category (cosmetics, wine, fashion) FIRM-SPECIFIC ADVANTAGES theories Unique to a particular enterprise (monopolistic) Patent, brand, control of raw-materials, know-how, control of distribution outlets, process technology, managerial capacity, marketing skills(can have their source in country-specific variables but a particular company can use them) Resource-based theory resources and capabilities of a firm
(e.g. marketing capabilities - ???brand, distribution, advertisment..EXAMPLES Internalization perspective (Buckley and Casson, 1976) internalization (within own boundaries subsidiary abroad) = FIRM-BASED SOLUTION vs externalization (some form of collaboration with foreign partner e.g. licence, jointventures)= MARKET-BASED SOLUTION OLI eclectic framework Ownership Location internalization Dunning, 1988 3 conditions for international production/or trade: ownership advantages (ownership of foreign facitlities advantage e.g. know-how), locational advantages (factors like labour, energy, materials, transport, communication channels), internalization advantages (more profitable is to use its advantage than to sell it) Value chain (Porter) Uppsala internationalization model Johanson and Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975 No regular export (sporadic)
Independent representatives (export modes) Foreign sales Foreign subsidiary production and sales subsidiary Market A Increasing market commitment Market N Increasing geographic diversification Market B Inc
re as ing i nte rn ali z ati on The transaction costs analysis model Coase, 1937, Williamson, 1985)
Organization of international activities and the choice of international market entry mode If the transaction costs through externalization (e.g. through an importer or agent) are higher than the control cost through an internal hierarchical system, then the firm should seek internalization (hierarchies) of activities, i.e. implementing the global market strategy in wholly owned subsidiaries. Or if the frictim between buyer and seller is too high then the firm should rather internalize, in the form of its own suubsidiaries.(Hollensen, S., 2007) Transaction costs
TC = different forms of costs related to the transactional relationship between buyer and seller = ex ante costs (search + contracting costs) + ex post costs (monitoring enforcement costs) Why many countries do no engage in trade with Africa? Examples???
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