Interactions of Life - University of Chicago

Interactions of Life - University of Chicago

Interactions of Life Interaction There are three main types of interaction between organisms: Competition Predation Symbiosis

Competition Different species can share the same habitat. Different species can share the same food requirement. If two species share the same niche, the result is competition and one will usually squeeze the other out. Gauses principle.

Competition Who will be victorious? Predation An interaction between species in which one kills and eats the other is called predation

Predators have adaptations to help them catch prey Prey have adaptations to help them avoid being caught Predation: Predator-Prey Relationships Exploitative Competition Predator: animals that feed on other animals (can

also be applied to herbivores feeding on plants) How is this Harmful to prey? How does this Benefit prey species? What is the Potential Benefit to Biotic Community? Predation Predation

Predation: Linkage of predator and prey population sizes

Decreased predator --> increased prey Increased predator --> decreased prey Decreased predator --> increased prey Increased predator --> decreased prey Interactions of Predator and Prey Hydra Preys on Daphnia

Symbiosis A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of them. 3 types of symbiotic relationships Mutualism Commensalism

Parasitism Mutualism: Symbiotic relationship where both species benefit Mutualism Mutualism: a relationship between two species where both benefit.

Butterflyweed provides food for butterflies like pipevine swallowtails. Butterflies like pipevine swallowtails pollinate butterflyweed.

Example of Mutualism Oxpeckers tickbirds): (aka Example of Mutualism Acacias and Ants

Example of Mutualism Ants and Aphids www.insects.about.com/od/ coolandunusualinsects/f/ antsandaphids.htm Mutualism

The acacia provides benefits to ants shelter (hollow thorns) nectar nectar (secreted near base of leaves)

A mutualism between certain ants and a small tree, the acacia. The ant attacks and removes herbivorous insects removes vines that might overgrow the acacia kills the growing shoots of nearby plants that might become competitors.

clears away leaf litter from near the plant protecting the tree from fire damage as well Examples of Mutualism Termites and Protozoans: Clownfish and Sea

Anemone: Mutualism Lichens grow in the leftover spots of the natural world that are too harsh or limited for most other organisms.

They are pioneers on bare rock, desert sand, cleared soil, dead wood, animal bones, rusty metal, and living bark. "Lichens are fungi that have discovered agriculture"-lichenologist Trevor Goward.

Mutualism Lichens are composite, symbiotic organisms made up from members of as many as three kingdoms.

The dominant partner is a fungus. Fungi are incapable of making their own food. They usually provide for themselves as parasites or decomposers. The lichen fungi (kingdom Fungi)

cultivate partners that manufacture food by photosynthesis. Sometimes the partners are algae (kingdom Protista), other times cyanobacteria (kingdom Monera), formerly called blue-green algae. Some enterprising fungi exploit both at once. Commensalism

Symbiotic relationship where one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed Commensalism Commensalism is a relationship between two

species in which one species obtains benefit from the other, without harming or benefiting it. The Antarctic scallop may have a bush sponge attached near

the shell's peripheral margin. The sponge is seeking the water flow over the scallop shell in order to facilitate its own filter feeding. Example of Commensalism Epiphytes:

Example of Commensalism Remora Example of Commensalism Barnacles on Whale Symbiotic Interactions Symbiosis: close relationship between two species

Parasitism: symbiotic relationship where one species benefits and the other is harmed Parasitism The tomato hornworm feeds on the foliage of the tomato plant Tomato hornworm

The braconid wasp lays eggs in a tomato hornworm. The eggs hatch into a wasp larva that feeds on the internal organs of the hornworm. Pupa of the wasp form on the skin of the hornworm Braconid

wasps lay eggs under the skin of the hornworm Tomato hornworm with Braconid wasp parasite

s (pupae). Parasitism Mistletoe is a parasitic plant that grows on trees, particularly hardwood trees like oak and apple. As mistletoe grows on a tree, it sends out its roots right into the tree's bark and takes nutrients from the tree.

Mistletoe has solved the problem of water by growing as a parasite on this tree. (photo R.K. McConeghy) This red mistletoe is growing from

the trunk of a tree. Sometimes, mistletoe can harm a tree and cause deformities in a tree's branches, but usually it doesn't kill its host. If the host dies, the mistletoe dies. Mistletoe is a

parasitic plant that grows on trees. Examples of Parasitism Sea Lampreys: Examples of Parasitism Poison Ivy:

Human Parasites

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