Innovation Sites Cultural Hearthsthat are not river valley sites River Valley Theory Early Civilizations

Americas Americas Physical Map Mesoamerica Early People of Mesoamerica How do these dates compare?

8000BCE-7000BCE Beans, chili peppers, avocados, squash, gourds 4000BCE 3000BCE earliest farming

- Maize agricultural villages Domesticated animals included: turkeys, dogs no draft animals, thus no wheeled vehicles 2000BCE

elaborate ceremonial centers (pyramids, temples, palaces) Early Societies South America 12,000BCE :hunters and gatherers into South America (deer, llama, alpaca) Mountainous

and coastal regions Cool, moist climate provided natural harvests (squash, gourds, potatoes) 8,000BCE changing climate led to agriculture, 2500BCE 2000BCE first permanent settlements along coast Cultivated

beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, cotton Later settlements in the highlands 1000BCE some evidence of complex societies Important Geography Notes Climate: mirror image

Sub Saharan Development is different than Mediterranean Coast Limited Natural Harbors River travel is difficult: cataracts, reversing and underground currents Uneven distribution of resources Soils for farming only adequate in certain areas people of

Mesoamerica and of South America? Is Gordon Childes 10 point model supported by their beginnings? Was there an innovative site of civilization?

What does the evidence suggest? Are they too, a study in the 10 point model? Uncovering the mysterious beginnings of Mesoamerica, South America and Sub-Saharan

Africa 3500 BCE 600BCE What did we discover? What locations deserve the designation Innovative?

Innovative AMERICAS Mesoamerican Legacy How do the archeological remains support our understanding (and justification) of the Mesoamerican innovative site?

Which group is the innovative people? How would you organize the details into a coherent understanding of historical development for the area? Does the evidence pose problems for

Childs 10 point model? MESOAMERICA Lowland Olmec s Coast of the Gulf of Mexico

Abundant rainfall no need for extensive irrigation, but elaborate drainage- chinampas, pot irrigation Slash and burn Elaborate temples, pyramids, stone sculptures, jade animal impressions, tombs Probably authoritarian

Military Force local chiefs Elite classes in ceremonial center - cities After Impact of Olmecs

400BCE? No written records beyond calendar inscriptions Olmec traditions diffused (possibly through trade) Rituals, pyramids, calendar Heirs to the Olmecs

MESOAMERICA Development of Teotihuacan 500 BCE Valley of Mexico Lakes

abundant supplies of fish, waterfowl as well as fresh water and opportunities for transportation Water channeled into fields for agriculture Thriving

metropolis: Very Urban temples, residential neighborhoods, busy markets, workshops Little written records paintings & murals POSSIBLE Theocracy- pyramids

MESOAMERICA Teotihuacan Society CLASSES: Priests, artisans, merchants, cultivators TECHNOLOGICAL

DEVELOPMENT: Obsidian tools, orange pottery TRADE: Extensive networks throughout region possible colonial arrangements

Little evidence of military or conquest Olmec cultural foundations: writing, calendar, sacrifices

Decline after 650CE purposefully burned MESOAMERICA Development of the Maya 2000bce earliest evidence 300BCE

Highlands of Guatemala fertile soil 300 900 CE Mesoamerican lowlands Terrace farming trapped silt from rivers Genuine cities developed into City state system (Tikal and Chichen Itza)

80 large ceremonial centers Continuous fighting -Human sacrifices Chichen empire Itza (900-1000CE) loosely organized

MESOAMERICA Maya Society & Religion Social Classes (Large priestly class, Hereditary landowning noble class, Merchant class from nobles and ruling elite, Architects, artisans, peasant, slaves)

INNOVATIONS/TRADITIONS Mathematical knowledge (concept of zero) Astronomy solar year -365.242 Maya scribes hieroglyphics (history, poetry, myth, administration,

astronomical records) only 4 remain Creation story Popol Vuh ANDEAN REGION Contact with Mesoamerica? South developed largely independently

Geography discouraged contact Communication within Andean region difficult Several agricultural products and technologies diffused slowly: Maize

and squash to South America Gold, silver, copper metallurgy to Mesoamerica South America: Andean Region Who is the innovative site? How, and why did they develop in this mountainous region?

What major development center to our understanding contradicts the 10 point model? SIPAN, Moche Culture 1987 ANDEAN REGION Chavin Cult

Development of agriculture & ceremonial centers 2000BCE in dry coastal regions Large populations served as stimulus for emergence of fertility cult

Temple complexes, elaborate works of art Intricate stone carvings (jaguars, hawks, eagles, snakes) Weavers, metal craftsmen

Increasing complexity 200BCE large cities (public buildings, extensive residential districts) ANDEAN REGION Mochica State Valleys

of Western Andes Complex society with considerable specialization of labor (300 700 CE) No writing system evidence through art Regional kingdom created through force

Integrated economic zones (highlands, central valley and coastal regions) Vertical trade Highlands (potatoes, llama meat, alpaca wool) Central valley (maize, bean, squash) Coasts (fish, cotton)

ANDEAN REGION Sub-Saharan Africa Was there a civilization that developed independently? How should we define urban?

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA EAST AFRICA Kingdom of Kush In Nubia Capital at Meroe 1700BCE- 500

Kingdom of Aksum Kush Aksum Great Zimbabwe Sacred

house Peak - late 11th Century (DISC. 19TH c) Questions surrounding ability to sustain sizeable population? (Trade) East African Connections AFRICA Later development significantly influenced by Trans-Saharan Trade

and camel caravans AFRICA Nok culture, city at Ife, Yoruba People Sahel Region 1000 BCE Strong

cultural tradition Mythological cities? Earliest JenneJeno settlement 3rd Century BCE Great interior floodplain of the Middle Niger,

rich alluvial soil well-suited to the cultivation of rice worked iron, fashioning the metal into both jewelry and tools

By 450 CE, over 60 acres Central inhabited area surrounded by a city wall 40 smaller additional settlements 13,000 inhabitants The

archaeology of Jenne- jeno and the surrounding area show an early, indigenous growth of trade and social complexity. (Yet, lack of a state?) Why is this significant in the development of Sub-Saharan Africa ? Predates Mediterranean and European outside influences! AC_06_206_bantu/AC_06_206_bantu.html Migrations Language Group 1000BCE 1000CE Out of Central West Africa -toSouth and East Diffusion of ideas, resources

throughout Africa Iron Metallurgy Agricultural Knowledge Plantains, yams, bananas Bantu Migrations

Significance to the modern era The Bantu - 2/3 of Africa's population, (south and east) language The group not a distinct ethnic group.

most widely spoken Bantu-derived language is Swahili, which is used by up to 50 million speakers on the eastern coast of Africa.

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