Importance of Vocabulary Instruction

Importance of Vocabulary Instruction

Dynamic Vocabulary Instruction in the Elementary School Anita L. Archer, Ph.D. [email protected] 1 Topics Importance of Vocabulary Instruction Components of a Vocabulary Program Read-Alouds Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Word-Learning Strategies Independent Reading 2 Importance of Vocabulary Instruction

Receptive Language Reading Comprehension (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990; Nagy, 2005; Scarborough, 1998, Stahl & Fairbanks, 1987) Expressive Language Listening Comprehension Writing Speaking Overall Reading Achievement (Stanovich, et al., 1993) Overall School Success (Becker, 1977; Anderson & Nagy, 199l) Hallmark of an Educated Individual (Beck, McKeown, Kucan,

2002) 3 Importance of Vocabulary Instruction Childrens vocabulary in the early grades related to reading comprehension in the upper grades. Preschool - Childrens vocabulary correlated with reading comprehension in upper elementary school. (Dickinson & Tabois, 2001) Kindergarten - Vocabulary size was an effective predictor of reading comprehension in middle elementary years. (Scarborough, 1998) First Grade - Orally tested vocabulary was a significant predictor of reading comprehension ten years later. (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997)

Third Grade - Children with restricted vocabulary have declining comprehension scores in the later elementary years. (Chall, Jacobs, & Baldwin, 1990) 4 Importance of Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary Gap Children enter school with different levels of vocabulary. (Hart & Risley, 1995) By the time the children were 3 years old, parents in less economically favored circumstances had said fewer words in their cumulative monthly vocabularies than the children in the most economically advantaged families in the same period of time. Cumulative Vocabulary (Age 4)

Children from professional families Children from working class families Children from welfare families 1100 words 700 words 500 words 5 Importance of Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary Gap Meaningful Differences in Cumulative Experiences (Hart & Risley, 1995) Words heard per hour Words heard in a 100-hour week Words heard in

a 5,200 hour year 3 years Welfare 620 62,000 3 million 10 million Working Class 1,250 125,000 6 million 20 million Professional

2,150 215,000 11 million 30 million 6 Importance of Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary Gap Linguistically poor first graders knew 5,000 words; linguistically rich first graders knew 20,000 words. (Moats, 2001) Children who enter school with limited vocabulary knowledge grow more discrepant over time from their peers who have rich vocabulary knowledge. (Baker, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1997)

The number of words students learn varies greatly. 2 versus 8 words per day 750 versus 3000 words per year By the end of second grade, 4,000 word difference in root vocabulary of children in highest vocabulary quartile & lowest quartile. (Biemiller, 2004) 7 Importance of Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary Gap Gap in word knowledge persists though the elementary years. (White, Graves, & Slater, 1990) The vocabulary gap between struggling readers and proficient readers grows each year. (Stanovich, 1986) After the primary grades, the achievement gap

between socioeconomic groups is a language gap. (Hirsh, 2002) For English Language Learners, the achievement gap is primarily a vocabulary gap. (Carlo, et al., 2004) 8 Importance of Vocabulary Instruction - Conclusion To close the vocabulary gap, vocabulary acquisition must be accelerated through intentional instruction. Vocabulary instruction must be a focus in all classes in all grades. 9 Components of a Vocabulary Program High-quality Classroom Language (Dickinson,

Cote, & Smith, 1993) Reading Aloud to Students (Elley, 1989; Senechal, 1997) Explicit Vocabulary Instruction (Baker, Kameenui, & Simmons, 1998; Baumann, Kameenui, & Ash, 2003; Beck & McKeown, 1991; Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002; Biemiller, 2004; Marzano, 2004; Paribakht & Wesche, 1997) Word-Learning Strategies (Buikima & Graves, 1993; Edwards, Font, Baumann, & Boland, 2004; Graves, 2004; White, Sowell, & Yanagihara, 1989) Wide Independent Reading (Anderson & Nagy, 1992; Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Nagy, Anderson, & Herman, 1987; Sternberg, 1987) 10

High Quality Classroom Language Use high quality vocabulary in the classroom. To ensure understanding, Tell students the meaning of words when first used. Dont procrastinate on your project. Procrastinate means to put off doing something. Pair in the meaning of the word by using parallel language. Please refrain from talking. Please dont talk. Laws have their genesistheir beginningin the legislative branch. What is your hypothesis your best guess? These are examples of fast mapping in which brief explanations are given for many words. 11 12

Read-Alouds Vocabulary can be gained from listening to others read. Listening to a book being read can significantly improve childrens expressive vocabulary. (Nicholson & Whyte, 1992; Senechal & Cornell, 1993) Print vocabulary is more extensive and diverse than oral vocabulary. (Hays, Wolfe, & Wolfe, 1996) Wide disparities exist in the amount of time parents read to their children before lst grade. Adams (1990) estimated that she spent at least 1000 hours reading books to her son before he entered first grade. Teale (1984) observed that in low-income homes the children were read to for about 60 hours

prior to first grade. 13 Read-Alouds Choose interesting, engaging stories that attract and hold childrens attention. The books should also be somewhat challenging. (Biemiller, 1995; Elley, 1989) Use performance-oriented reading. Read with expression and enthusiasm. Provide students with a little explanation of novel words that are encountered in context. This is another example of fast mapping. (Brabham & Lynch-Brown, 2002; Brett, Rothlein & Hurley, 1996; Beck, Perfetti, & McKeon, 1982; Elley, 1989; Penno, Wilkinson, &Moore, 2002; wasik & Bond, 2001; Whitehurst et al., 1998) 14 Read-Alouds

Actively engage students during the story book reading to increase vocabulary gains. (Dickerson & Smith, 1994; Hargrave & Senechal, 2000; Senechal, 1997) Ask questions that promote passage comprehension. Retell and prediction questions are particularly useful. Use a variety of responses including: Group (choral) responses Partner responses Physical responses 15 Read-Alouds For young students, read the book several times to increase greater gains in vocabulary. (Senechal, 1997)

Provide a rich discussion before and after reading of the book. What was your favorite part of the book? What really surprised you in the story? What would be another ending for the story? 16 Read-Alouds Did the teacher: 1. Select an interesting, engaging, challenging book? Yes No 2. Read the book with enthusiasm and expression? Yes No 3. Provide a little explanation of novel words? Yes No Example words:

4. Actively engage the students? Yes No 17 18 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Preliminary evidence..suggests that as late as Grade 5, about 80% of words are learned as a result of direct explanation, either as a result of the childs request or instruction, usually by a teacher. (Biemiller, 1999) 19 Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Sources of words for vocabulary instruction WORDS from read-aloud books

WORDS from core reading programs WORDS from reading intervention programs WORDS from content area instruction Math Science Social studies Health Art, PE, music, etc. 20 Explicit Vocabulary InstructionSelection of Vocabulary Select a limited number of words for robust, explicit vocabulary instruction. Three to ten words per story or section in a chapter would be appropriate.

Briefly tell students the meaning of other words that are needed for comprehension. 21 Explicit Vocabulary InstructionSelection of vocabulary Select words that are unknown. Select words that are important to passage understanding. Select words that students are likely to encounter in the future and are generally useful. (Stahl, 1986) Focus on Tier Two words (Beck & McKeown, 2003) Academic Vocabulary Select words that are more difficult to obtain. Words having an abstract versus concrete reference. Words with unknown concept. Words not clearly defined in passage. Words that are polysemous.

22 Explicit Instruction of WordsSelection of Vocabulary (Beck & McKeown, 1985) Tier One - Basic words Tier Two - Words in general use, but not common chair, bed, happy, house concentrate, absurd, fortunate, relieved, dignity, convenient, observation, analyze, persistence Tier Three - Rare words limited to a specific domain tundra, igneous rocks, weathering, constitution, area, sacrifice fly, genre, foreshadowing 23

Explicit Instruction of WordsSelection of Vocabulary Goldilocks Words Not too difficult Not too easy Just right (Stahl & Stahl, 2004) 24 Explicit Instruction - Practice Activity Select words for robust, explicit instruction. (Read-alouds) Second Graders Fifth Graders Enemy Pie by Derek Munson The Family Under the Bridge by Natalie

Savage Carlson (for Chapter 1) perfect monsieur trampoline cathedral enemy cowered recipe hidey-hole disgusting hyacinths earthworms fragile ingredients

oleanders horrible gratitude nervous fastidious invited loitering relieved roguish boomerang adventure 25 Explicit Instruction - Practice Activity Select words for robust, explicit instruction. (Core Reading) McMillan/McGraw Hill - 2nd

Open Court - 2nd swift jalapeno escaped ingredients hidden dough machine knead swaying recipe fierce mixture

mussel medusa 26 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Select 3 words for robust explicit instruction. Reading Level: 2nd Passage: Lemonade for Sale Series: Harcourt Trophies announced members neighborhood arrived rebuild lemonade glum

squawked clubhouse 27 Select 5 words for robust, explicit instruction. Harcourt 4th Look to the North - A Wolf Pup Diary ceases surrender tundra pack abundant talent bonding

cooperation piteously incredible 28 Explicit Instruction of Words Selection of words Also, teach idioms (A phrase or expression in which the entire meaning is different from the usual meaning of the the individual words.) The car rolling down the hill caught my eye. Soon we were in stitches. The painting cost me an arm and a leg. The teacher was under the weather. 29 Explicit Instruction Prepare - Student-Friendly Explanations Dictionary Definition relieved - (1) To free wholly or partly from pain, stress,

pressure. (2) To lessen or alleviate, as pain or pressure Student-Friendly Explanation (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2003) Is easy to understand. When something that was difficult is over or never happened at all, you feel relieved. 30 Explicit Instruction Prepare - Student-Friendly Explanations Dictionary Definition Attention - a. the act or state of attending through applying the mind to an object of sense or thought b. a condition of readiness for such attention involving a selective narrowing of consciousness and receptivity

Explanation from Dictionary for English Language Learners (Elementary Learners Dictionary published by Oxford) Attention - looking or listening carefully and with interest 31 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Preparation Student-friendly explanation. Word Definition Student-Friendly Explanation train trained Teach a particular skill or type of behavior through practice and instruction over

a period of time. When you teach an animal to do something, you train the animal. follow followed Go or come after a person or thing proceeding ahead. If you are in line and you walk right after the person in front of you, you follow them. travel traveled Make a journey typically of some length or abroad. When a person or an animal goes from one place to another, they travel. When you travel, you usually go a long way. migrate migrated

Move from one region or habitat to another especially regularly according to the seasons. survive survived Continue to live or exist, especially in spite of danger or hardship. 32 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Instructional Routine (Note: Teach words AFTER you have read a story to your students and BEFORE students read a selection.) Step 1. Introduce the word. a) b) Write the word on the board or overhead. Read the word and have the students repeat the word. If the word is difficult to pronounce or unfamiliar have the students repeat the word a number of times.

Introduce the word with me. This word is relieved. What word? 33 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Instructional Routine (continued) Step 2. Present a student-friendly explanation. a) Tell students the explanation. OR b) Have them read the explanation with you. Present the definition with me. When something that is difficult is over or never happened at all, you feel relieved. So if something that is difficult is over, you would feel _______________. 34 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Instructional Routine

(continued) Step 3. Illustrate the word with examples. a) b) c) Concrete examples. Visual representations. Verbal examples. Present the examples with me. When the spelling test is over, you feel relieved. When you have finished giving the speech that you dreaded, you feel relieved. 35 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Instructional Routine (continued) Step 4. Option #1. Check students understanding.

Ask deep processing questions. Check students understanding with me. When the students lined up for morning recess, Jason said, I am so relieved that this morning is over. Why might Jason be relieved? When Maria was told that the soccer game had been cancelled, she said, I am relieved. Why might Maria be relieved? 36 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Instructional Routine (continued) Step 4. Option #2. Check students understanding. Have students discern between examples and non-examples. Check students understanding with me. If you were nervous singing in front of others, would you feel relieved when the concert was over?

Yes Why? If you loved singing to audiences, would you feel relieved when the concert was over? No Why not? It was not difficult for you. 37 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Instructional Routine (continued) Step 4. Option #3. Check students understanding. Have students generate their own examples. Check students understanding with me. Tell your partner a time when you were relieved. 38 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words.

Instructional Routine (continued) Step 4. Option #4. Check students understanding. Provide students with a sentence starter. Have them say the complete sentence. Check students understanding with me. Sometimes your mother is relieved. Tell your partner when your mother is relieved. Start your sentence by saying, My mother is relieved when________. 39 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Did the teacher: 1.

Introduce the word? 2. Present a student-friendly explanation? 3. Illustrate the word with examples? 4. Check students understanding? 40 Practice Activity: Teaching Critical Vocabulary (Example A) 1. Introduce the word. 2. Present a student-friendly explanation. This word is travel. What word? ___________ When a person or an animal goes from one place to another, they travel. So when a person or an animal goes from one place to another place they ___________. The word travel is usually used when the person or animal goes a long way. So would we use the travel if we were talking about going from this room to

the next room? _______ 41 Practice Activity: Teaching Critical Vocabulary (Example A continued) 3. Illustrate the word with examples. If you went from Portland to San Diego on an airplane, you would__________. If you drove from Boston to San Francisco in a car, you would _______________. 4. Check students understanding. (Deep processing question.) Why might a family travel to another city? Tell your partner. (The teacher calls on individuals.) (Generate examples.) Tell your partner some place that you and your family have traveled to. (Teacher monitors and then calls on individuals.) 42 Practice Activity: Teaching Critical Vocabulary (Example B) 1. Introduce the word.

This word is migrate. What word? 2. Present a student-friendly explanation. When birds or other animals move from one place to another at a certain time each year, they migrate. So if birds move to a new place in the winter or spring, we say that the birds _________________. Animals usually migrate to find a warmer place to live or to get food. 3. Illustrate the word with examples. Sandhill Cranes fly from the North to the South so they can live in a warmer place. Sandhill Cranes _______________. 43 Practice Activity: Teaching Critical Vocabulary (Example B continued) The wildebeests in Africa move to a new place so that they can find water and grass. Wildebeests _______. 4. Check students understanding. (Deep processing question.) Why might birds migrate? Tell your partner. (The teacher monitors and coaches. Then the teacher calls on individuals.)

44 Practice Activity: Teaching Critical Vocabulary (Example C) 1. 2. 3. Introduce the word. This word is survive. What word? Present a student-friendly explanation. When people or animals dont die when things are very bad or dangerous, they survive. Illustrate the word with examples. Look at the people on this river. It is very dangerous. However, they dont get hurt or die, they __________. 45 Practice Activity: Teaching Critical Vocabulary (Example C continued) 4. Check students understanding. (Examples and non-examples) Get ready to tell me if this group would survive. If the winter was very cold and all food was buried under the snow, would

whooping cranes survive?________ Ones, tell your partner why they wouldnt survive? If whooping cranes had plenty of food and the weather was warm, would they survive? __________ Twos, tell your partner why they would survive? (Deep Processing Questions) If a rabbit was being chased by a coyote, what could the rabbit do to survive? 46 Practice - Example D 1. Introduce the word. This word is abundant. What word? ___________. Again, _____________. Abundant is an adjective. 2. Introduce the meaning of the word. When there is plenty of something, there is an abundant amount. So, if you have plenty of something, you have an amount that is ______________________. 47 Practice - Example D 3.

4. Illustrate with examples. If you have lots of food in your house, you have abundant food. If you had a huge supply of paper, you would have _______ _________. If you had enough pencils for everyone, you would have _____ _______. If you had more than enough money to live on, you would have _____ _______. Check understanding. Get read to tell me if this would be abundant. Say abundant or not. If you had 2 pencils for the year? Not If you had 40 pencils for the year? Abundant If the class had 800 books? Abundant If the class had 30 books? Not If the family had enough food for one day? Not If the family had enough food for 3 months? Abundant 48 Practice - Example E 1. Introduce the word. This word is virtue. What word? ___________. Again, _____________. Virtue is a noun. 2.

Introduce the meaning of the word. When someone has a really good quality like honesty, that quality is a virtue. So someone has really good quality, we can that quality a ________________________. 49 Practice - Example E 3. 4. Illustrate with examples. (And non-examples) Being honest is a virtue. Lying in not a virtue. Being kind is a __________. Being mean is not a _________________. Being generous is a ____________. Being greedy and not sharing is not a ______. Being reliable is a ______________. Being inconsistent so that people can not count on you is not a ______________. Check understanding. Make a T chart on your paper. Now, label the columns virtue and not virtue. With your partner, write in a virtue and then the opposite of that virtue. Lets read my ideas first. _____Virtue _____________ patient responsible orderly

courageous l_____________Not a Virtue___________ l impatient, feeling annoyed l irresponsible, careless l messy lscared 50 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Review After teaching the group of vocabulary words, review the words using a word association activity. Words written on board or overhead: enemy, disgusting, invited, relieved Tell me the word that I am thinking of. Someone that hates you might be called an _____. If you didnt like a food, you might say it is _______. When a test is over, you often feel _________. When you are asked to a party, you are _____. 51 Teach the meaning of critical,

unknown vocabulary words. Review After teaching the group of vocabulary words, review the words using a choice activity. Words written on board or overhead: enemy, disgusting, invited, relieved If you felt relieved after a test, was the test probably easy or difficult? If an enemy gave you the answers before a test, would you believe the answers to be correct or incorrect? If the food was disgusting, would you ask for more or spit it up? If you were invited to a party, would you be asked to come or to stay away? 52 Teach the meaning of critical, unknown vocabulary words. Word Walls Create a word wall in your classroom. Post a reminder of the context.

Copy of the cover of the read-aloud book Copy of the first page in the story The topic in science or social studies Post the vocabulary words. Incorporate the words into your classroom language. Encourage students to use the words when speaking and writing. 53 Vocabulary Logs Have students maintain a log of vocabulary to facilitate study and review.

What can be recorded on a vocabulary log? Word Student-friendly explanation Any of these options A sentence to illustrate the words meaning Examples and non-examples An illustration In lower grades, create a group log on a flip chart. 54 Word Walls Create a word wall in your classroom

Post a reminder of the context. Copy of the cover of the read-aloud book Copy of the first page in the story The topic in science or social studies Post the vocabulary words. Incorporate the words into your classroom language. Encourage students to us the words when speaking and writing. 55 Practice Activities Practice activities should:

Be engaging. Provide multiple exposures to the words. (Stahl, 1986) Encourage deep processing of the words meaning. (Beck, Mc Keown, & Kucan, 2002) When possible, connect the words meaning to prior knowledge. Provide practice over time. 56 Example Practice Activity Yes/No/Why 1. 2. 3.

Do territories that are possessions have autonomy? Can incidents cause compassion? Do people always comply with their obligations? (Beck, Perfetti, & McKeown, 1982; Curtis & Longo, 1997) Items taken from REWARDS PLUS, Sopris West. 57 Example Practice Activity Yes/No/Why 1. 2. Could a disgusting enemy be horrible? Would you be relieved if you could concentrate on the test? 3. Would it be disgusting to eat earthworms? 4. Could an enemy do disgusting things?

58 Example Practice Activity Completion Activity 1. confine: If you keep someone or something in a certain place, you confine it. Things that can be confined are ______________________________________________________________. 2. persistent: If you keep doing something again or again OR you keep trying to do something and you never give up, you would be persistent. I was very persistent when ____________. (Curtis & Longo, 1997) 59 Example Practice Activity Word Pairs (Stahl & Kapinus, 200l) Word Pair Same nomad wanderer

nomadsettler desertcity Opposite Go Together No Relationship X X X 60 Example Practice Activity Word Lines (Example designed by Isabel Beck, 2004) How surprised would you be if. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. You saw your friend vault over the moon? Your teacher commended a student for doing good work? A dog started bantering with you? The mayor urged everyone to leave town?

A coach berated his team for not making a touchdown? A rabbit trudged through a garden? Least - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Most Surprised Surprised 61 Example Practice Activity Word Lines (Example designed by Isabel Beck, 2004) How much energy does it take to. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Meander down a hall? Vault over a car? Banter with your best friend for an hour? Berate someone at the top of your voice? Stalk a turtle? Be a spectator at a concert?

Least - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -Most Energy Energy 62 Example Practice ActivitySentence Substitution 1. 2. 3. When the spelling test was over, Kaiya was relieved. After reading the childrens stories, the teacher said that she was very impressed. Marcus couldnt concentrate on his math assignment. (Lively, August, Carlo, & Snow, 2003) 63 Example Practice Activity Word Sorts (Gillett & Temple, 1983) Legislative Branch

Executive Branch Judicial Branch House President Legality Senate Cabinet Supreme Court Speaker Departments Constitutionality 64 Example Practice ActivityMeaningful Sentence Writing (adapted from Success for All)

Students write a sentence answering three to four of these questions: who, what, when, where, why, how Not OK It was meager. OK At the end of the month, our dinners were meager because we had little money. 65 Example Practice Activity Semantic Mapping - Structured (Heimlich & Pittelman) textiles types of textiles products made from textiles characteristics of textiles 66

Example Practice Activity Semantic Mapping (Heimlich & Pittelman) Directions: 1. Have students brainstorm words that come to mind when given a target word. 2. Have students brainstorm possible categories for the words. 3. Have students arrange brainstorm words in categories. 67 Example Practice ActivityWord Association Present a number of words. representative . socialism . reform . revolution . tributary Play I am thinking of a word I am thinking of a word that goes with river.

I am thinking of a word that refers to a person that takes ideas to the government. I am thinking of a word that means a change. 68 Example Practice ActivityWord Association - Challenging Present a number of words. concentrate relieved enemy impressed absurd educated Play Select a word. Defend your choice. What word goes best with the word humor. Tell your partner and defend your choice. What word goes best with a game. Tell your partner and defend your choice. 69 Word-Learning Strategies

Use of context clues. Use of dictionary, glossary, or other resource. Use of meaningful parts of the word. Compound words Prefixes Suffixes Word families 70 Word Learning Strategies Use of context clues When using the context clues, students infer the meaning of the word by scrutinizing the surrounding text. Teach students to use context clues to determine the meaning of unknown vocabulary. (Gipe & Arnold, 1979)

However, if a student reads 100 unfamiliar words in reading, he/she will only learn between 5 to 15 words. (Nagy, Hermann, & Anderson, 1985; Swanborn & de Glopper, 1999) 71 Word Learning Strategies Use of context clues Strategy - Context Clues 1. 2. Read the sentence in which the word occurs for clues as to the words meaning. Read the surrounding sentences for clues as to the words meaning. 3. Ask yourself, What might the word mean? 4. Try the possible meaning in the sentence. 5.

Ask yourself, Does it make sense? 72 Word Learning Strategies Use of context clues Beginning in kindergarten, model how to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word using context clues. Provide simple practice in inferring word meanings from context. But not always! Example: Jason went into the school. He was very anxious. 73 Word Learning Strategies Use of glossary/dictionary Strategy - Glossary/Dictionary 1.

2. 3. 4. Locate the unknown word in the glossary or the dictionary. Read each definition and select the meaning that best fits the sentence. Try the possible meaning in the sentence. Ask yourself, Does it make sense? 74 Word Learning Strategies Compound Words Teach students that the meaning of compound words can often be derived from the meaning of the two smaller words. birdhouse waiting-room starfish fingernail weekend mailbox

raincoat daydream But not always! butterfly hotdogs 75 Word Learning Strategies Use of meaningful parts of word Strategy #3 - Meaning Parts of Word 1. Divide the unknown word into meaningful parts. 2. Think what each part means. OR Think of other words that contain the part. From those words formulate a meaning of the unknown part. 3. Combine the meanings of the word. 4. Try the possible meaning in the sentence. 5. Ask yourself, Does it make sense? 76 Word Learning Strategies Prefixes Elements attached to beginning of English

words that alter meaning. Prefixes are useful because they are used in many words, consistently spelled, easy to identify, clear in meaning. (Graves, 2004) Teach very common prefixes. Un, re, in, and dis found in 58% of prefixed words. 77 Word Learning Strategies Prefixes 1. 2. Introduce prefix. Re means again. What does re mean? Determine meaning of a word with a prefix. Read the word. rewrite

If you rewrite your paper, you write it ___. again Read the word. rebuild If you rebuild a house, you build it ____. again (Repeat with retell, redo, repaint, remake.) But not always! real, rent, reign 78 Word Learning Strategies Suffixes Elements attached to ending of English words. Can change the part of the speech or the meaning. Focus on common derivational suffixes. able, ful, less, ness, or Introduce the suffix and use to determine the meaning of a number of words (ful -helpful, truthful, mouthful, joyful).

But not always! grateful 79 The Most Common Prefixes in English Prefix Meaning % of prefixed words Examples un not; reversal of 26% uncover re again, back, really

14% rewrite in/im in, into, not 11% incorrect, insert dis away, apart, negative 7% discover, discontent en/em in; within; on 4%

entail mis wrong 3% mistaken pre before 3% prevent pro in favor of; before 1% protect a

not; in, on, without 1% atypical 80 The Most Common Suffixes in English Suffix Meaning %of prefixed words Examples s, es more than one; verb marker 31% movies

ed in the past; quality/state 20% walked ing when you do something; quality, state 14% walking ly how something is 7% lovely er,or

one who, what/that/which 4% teacher, tailor tion, sion state, quality; act 4% action;erosion able, ible able to be 2% comfortable al, ial related to, like

1% fatal 81 Common Latin and Greek Roots aqua water Greek aquarium, aquaduct aud hearing Latin audio, audition auto self

Greek autograph, autobiography astro star Greek astronomy, astrophysics, astrology biblio book Greek bibliography, bibliophobia bio life Greek biography, biology

chrono time Greek synchronize, chronology corp body Latin corpse, corporation, corps demo the people Greek democracy, demography dict

speak, tell Latin dictate, predict, dorm sleep Latin dormant, dormitory geo earth Greek geology, geography 82 Common Latin and Greek Roots graph

to write, to draw Greek autograph, biography hydro water Greek hydroplane, dehydrate, hydroelectric ject throw Latin reject, deject, project, projectory logos, logy study

Greek geology, astrology, biology, numerology luna moon Latin lunar, lunacy meter measure Greek thermometer, diameter mega great, large, big Greek

megaphone, megatons min small, little Latin minimal, minimize, minimum mit, mis send Latin mission, transmit, remit, missile path feeling, suffering Greek pathetic, pathology ped

foot Latin pedestrian, pedal philia love, friendship Greek philanthropist 83 Common Latin and Greek Roots phono sound Greek phonograph, microphone, symphony

photo light Greek photograph, photosynthesis port carry Latin transport, portable spect see Latin respect, inspection, spectator scope

look at Greek microscope, telescope sol sound Latin solar, solstice struct build, form Latin instruction, construction, destruct tele distant Greek

telephone, television terra land Latin territory, terrestrial 84 Word Learning StrategiesWord Families A group of words related in meaning. (Nagy & Anderson, 1984) If you know the meaning of one family member, you can infer the meaning of related words. enthusiasm enthusiastic enthusiastically

collector collect educate collecting educated collection education educator wild wilderness 85 Word Learning Strategies Word Families Word Family educate educated education educator Introduce the words in relationship to each other.

Teachers teach you how to read and write. They educate you. When you learn to read and write, you are educated. In school, you get an education. A teacher is an educator. 86 Independent Reading The best way to foster vocabulary growth is to promote wide reading. (Anderson, 1992) .it must be acknowledged that relying on wide reading for vocabulary growth adds to the inequities in individual differences in vocabulary knowledge. Struggling readers do not read well enough to make wide reading an option. To acquire word knowledge from reading requires adequate decoding skills, the ability to recognize that a word is unknown, and the competency of being able to extract meaningful information about the word from the context. Readers cannot be engaged with the latter two if they are struggling with decoding. Thus, depending on wide reading as a source of vocabulary growth leaves those children and young people who are most in need of enhancing their vocabulary repertoires with a very serious deficit. p. 6 (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)

87 Variation in Amount of Reading Percentile Rank Minutes per day reading in books Minutes per day reading in text Words per year in books Words per year in text 98 65.0 67.3 4,358,000 4,733,000

90 21.2 33.4 1,823,000 2,357,000 80 14.2 24.6 1,146,000 1,597,000 70 9.6 16.9 622,000

1,168,000 60 6.5 13.1 432,000 722,000 50 4.6 9.21 282,000 601,000 40 3.2

6.2 200,000 421,000 30 1.8 4.3 106,000 251,000 20 0.7 2.4 21,000 134,000 10

0.1 1.0 8,000 51,000 2 0 0 0 8,000 88 Increasing Amount of Independent Reading Maximize access to books.

Extended library hours Classroom libraries Book sales, book exchanges Establish time for independent reading. Silent Sustained Reading Partner Reading BUT dont substitute silent reading for reading instruction. Expect reading outside of class. 89 Increasing Amount of Independent Reading Encourage selection of books at the independent

reading level. Teach the five-finger test. Encourage students to read familiar books. Same author Same character Same genre Books in a series 90 Increasing Amount of Independent Reading Enhance personal motivation.

Establish a school climate that encourages reading. Have book-rich environments. Provide book recommendations. Bulletin boards posted with recommendations Book tables Book clubs 91 Conclusion Words are all we have. Samuel Beckett 92 Recommended Books Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G. & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press.

Baumann, J. F. & Kameenui, E.J. (2004). Vocabulary instruction: research to practice. New York: The Guilford Press. Diamond, L. & Gutlohn, L. (2006) Vocabulary handbook. Berkeley, CA: CORE. (www.corelearn.com) Graves, M. F. (2006). The vocabulary book: Learning and instruction. New York, New York: Teachers College Pres. 93 Recommended Books Marzano, R.J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Marzano, R.J., & Pickering (2005). Building academic vocabulary: Teachers manual. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Stahl, S. A. (1998). Vocabulary development. Cambridge, MA : Brookline.

Stahl, S. A., & Kapinus, B. (2001). Word power: what every educator needs to know about teaching vocabulary. Washington, DC: NEA. 94 Dictionaries with Student-Friendly Explanations Major distributors Pearson/Longman Education (www.longman.com) (www.ldoceonline.com) Thompson/Heinle (www.heinle.com) www.learnersdictionary.com 95 Read-Aloud References Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G. & Kucan, L. (2005). Read-aloud anthology. Steck-Vaughn. Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G. & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: robust vocabulary instruction. New York: The Guilford Press. (At the back of the book, there is a list of read-alouds and selected vocabulary.

Trelease, J. (2004) Read aloud handbook. Penquin Books. 96

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