Humor, Satire and Irony in Voltaire's Candide

Humor, Satire and Irony in Voltaire's Candide

Sarah Nixon, Michaela Brew, Mandy Klaben, Archie Cowen, Molly Westbrook context of horror Candide was flogged in time with the anthem, the Basque and the two men who refused to eat bacon were burnt, and Pangloss was hanged, though that was not the usual practice on those occasions. The same day, another earthquake occurred, and caused tremendous havoc. (36)

The irony of the situation was that another earthquake occurred despite all this violence us and we can't win It is proved...that things cannot be other than they are, for since everything was made for a purpose, it follows that everything is made for the best purpose. (20) Cosmic irony because everything was created by god because it was the best.

thing For if Columbus, when visiting the West Indies, had not caught this disease...we should have neither chocolate nor cochineal. (20) Voltaire is undercutting the Columbian exchange by stating the least important things and the most important feature which provides a double meaning throughout the story.

Private misfortunes contribute to the general good, so that the more private misfortunes there are, the more we find that all is well. (31) Throughout the story Candide is plagued by misfortunes, and yet Voltaire is saying he is contributing to society when he is not Unstable Irony- an approach which suggests that there is no rationale in the human condition.

Martin's conclusion was that man was born to suffer, from the restlessness of anxiety or from the lethargy of boredom. (140) Candide and the other characters go through hard times but Voltaire shows that they eventually are happy and that mans purpose is not that which Martin is stating. Humorous Utterance: a statement(s) entertaining to the audience but not necessarily to the speaker.

Observe: our noses were made to carry spectacles, so we have spectacles. Legs were clearly intended for breeches, and we wear them. Stones were meant for carving and for building houses, and that is why my lord has a most beautiful house... pg 20 This is part of Pangloss' philosophy and he truly believes in what he says, but it seems funny to us because of understatement that lies behind the quote.

Comical Irony: A form of understatement which uses humor to make its point. ...for his house had a door and several windows and his hall was actually draped with tapestry. pg 19 This is comical irony because it is saying that having a door and several windows was grand which is an understatement because in our world it is not grand to have only a door and windows.

Aphorism: A pointed statement that underscores a serious maxim or major truth. I am more than ever convinced that man is evil. pg 108 This is an aphorism because the speaker believes that man is evil because he was manipulated by man. Socratic irony: This form of irony is used when a

character or speaker assumes an ignorant role, then reveals weakness or absurdity in another's contrary opinions. Do you mean to say you have no monks, teaching and disputing, governing and intriguing, and having people burned if they don't subscribe to their opinions? We should be stupid if we had, Said the old man; We are all of the same opinion here, and we don't know what you mean by monks. pg 80 This is an example of Socratic irony because

the old man, who is ignorant to the practices of the European Church, reveals the absurdity of Candide's opinions. Indirect Satire: Uses a fictional narrative or other form to attack those who make themselves or their opinions ridiculous and are made to look even more ridiculous, thanks to the authors remarks. Pangloss allowed that his sufferings had been uniformly horrible; but as he had once maintained that everything would turn out right

in some marvelous way, he still maintained it would, however little he believed in it. pg 140 This is indirect satire because it is in the form of a narrative and it is ridiculous that Pangloss continues to believe that this is the best of all possible worlds after he has been through so much pain and suffering.

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