Hinduism - Diane Morris

Hinduism - Diane Morris

Hinduism A presentation by; Amanda Buisman, Amy Higgins, Diane Morris, and Stephanie Kimbrel Biographical Background Regarded as worlds oldest religion, began in India. Does not have one single founding Mother or Father. Uses multiple very old books for scripture, the oldest being the Veda. Prefer scripture and customs to be delivered via word of mouth from a swami, yogi, or guru. Belief that their religion is eternal, based on natural

law (Rita) as opposed to the written law from man. Is constantly changing and evolving like nature, therefore little emphasis is placed on written scripture. All living beings (human and nature) are divine; each with its own unique energy. Biographical Background Believe in karma* and reincarnation**. They also meditate. *Karma- The total effect of a persons actions. Determines a persons destiny. **Reincarnation- After one had died, the soul or spirit comes back to Earth in a newborn body.

Worship many different Gods. Most have a shrine in the home. Brahma and Vishnu are the two main Gods. Hindus sacred language is Sanskrit. Believe the mind is a sixth sense, capable of perceiving energy fields and entities the other five senses cant. Believe in dimensions and multiple universes beyond our current understanding and knowledge. The truth that defines Hinduism comes from beyond time and space, and therefore it will be forever true. The Rita, or Natural-law Pure awareness is always the same; everything else changes.

Everything that dies is re-created in another form. Everything in the universe is directly or indirectly related to everything else. The consequences of an action always return to the person who performed it. The only lasting peace we experience comes when we rest our awareness in the lucid stillness hidden behind our thoughts. Ethical Principles The Hindu religion has five basic Ethical Principles; 1. God exists

2. Human beings are divine. 3. Unity exists through love. 4. Religious harmony. 5. Knowledge of the three Gs. Ethical Principles Explained The Existence of GodGod has three subcategories; 1. One Absolute Om 2. One Trinity; Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahejhuara (Shiva) 3. Several Divine Forms Human Beings as Divine BeingsThe notion of human beings as divine beings comes

from ancient Hindu texts. The perception of the individual self, or atman, are the immortal pure essence of each individual being. Ethical Principles Explained Unity Exists Through Love and Religious Harmony One life vibrates in all beings. Life is common in all living animals, birds, and humans alike. One of the first concepts that is taught in the Hindu religion is the unity of all selves. If you injure another living being, you also injure yourself. Likewise, if you help another living being, you are also helping helping yourself. There is one life and one common consciousness in all

living beings. Ethical Principles Explained Knowledge of the Three Gs1. Ganga (the river) 2. Gita (religious scripture) 3. Gayatri (mantras) Mantras IncludeWe meditate on the glory of the Creator Who has created the Universe; Who is worthy of Worship; Who is the embodiment of Knowledge and Light; Who is the remover of all Sins and Ignorance; May he enlighten our Intellect

Application/Usefullness in Todays Healthcare Environment Hinduism is one of the five most common world religions, therefore it is imperative the Healthcare Worker has some understanding of the religion and customs of its followers. Key concepts includeThe importance of family, purity, karma and dharma. These influence such topics as birth, death, organ donation, and euthanasia. Modesty while providing care is of extreme importance. Application/Usefulness of the Theory in Todays Healthcare Environment

As a practitioner, sensitivity and respect for culture and religion is important when caring for the Hindu patient. Family is often intimately involved in making important ethical decisions. The individual person is not seen as autonomous, rather they are intimately integrated with his or her extended family with a strong male dominance to matters of consent. Application/Usefulness of the Theory in Todays Healthcare Environment Purity is a highly valued quality. The two terms for purity are Suddha and Sauca. Suddha relates to

the image of the human body in its most pure, perfect and desired state while Sauca refers more to personal cleanliness. Generally women are thought of as less pure then men due to natural bodily discharges (menstruation, childbirth). Newborn children are also thought of as impure due to the birthing process. The infant goes through rituals of purification during the 11-13 days after birth. Application/Usefulness of the Theory in Todays Healthcare Environment The process of death is also very different for a Hindu. Death is attained and merely the karmic idea of the

end of one life and the preparation for the next. Death is viewed as a natural and wonderful event that is not to be feared. Emphasis on family participation in the dying process should be expected. Generally if ones death yields opportunity for organ donation, the Hindu idea of dharma (righteous living) lends acceptance of this practice. There are some schools of thought which place concern on the idea of karma being transferred with the donated organ to the recipient. Application/Usefulness of the Theory in Todays Healthcare Environment

Euthanasia and abortion are both controversial issues in most cultures and religions; Hinduism is no exception. Hinduism recognizes 3 types of death; natural, unnatural (murder), and self-willed (suicide). It is thought that passive euthanasia is practiced in India. If a patient is terminally ill then doctors are motivated by compassion and do not resort to heroic life-saving measures . Abortion is in most circumstances considered murder. Birth is viewed as a cyclical event from the moment of conception and is merely the rebirth of a fully developed person. Since the fetus is considered a reborn person from the point of conception, aborting for any other reason then preserving the life of the mother is generally not accepted.

Drawback, Limitations/Critiques Due to the the roots of Hinduism dating back to 2000 B.C., there are many things that are unknown about the religion. Several ancient scripts have yet to be deciphered and the authors of these ancient scripts remain unknown. This is cause for questioning the validity of Hinduism and its practices. Hinduism does not have a strict belief system with creeds and confessions, therefore is often misunderstood and devalued by Westerners. Hinduism is a very open-minded religion with unfamiliar concepts such as reincarnation and karma. These are concepts that cannot be seen or proven; often these ideas are beyond the scope of the mind of the Western

world. Drawback, Limitations/Critiques India has a strict caste system that has been the subject of many critiques. Hinduism has long been associated with the caste system despite there being no evidence of such in any ancient texts. This caste system creates four distinct divisions among the people of India and is enforced through a strict code of conduct. Where you are born in the caste system is where you will die. Drawback, Limitations/Critiques

Hinduism is also criticized for practices such as the Sati, or bride burning. Sati has several different meanings, but all of which are some form of violence (domestic or otherwise) against women. These horrible acts are said to be rationalized within the ancient texts of Hinduism. Hundreds of women in India die each year with these types of practices. Hinduism and the ANA Code of Ethics In Provision 1 in the ANA Code of Ethics, it is stated that; The nurse, in all professional relationships, practices with compassion and respect for the

inherent dignity, worth and uniqueness of every individual, unrestricted by consideration of social or economic status, personal attributes, or the nature of health problems. This is in relation to the main concept of Hinduism, which is that one must have respect and act with compassion for ones self, other living beings, and all things in nature. Hinduism teaches that all actions taken by an individual will eventually come back to them, therefore acting with respect and compassion is essential to having a pleasant life in this current dimension as well as the next dimension. Hinduism and the ANA Code of Ethics

In Provision 5 of the ANA Code of Ethics, it is stated that; The nurse owes the same duties to self as to others, including the responsibility to preserve integrity and safety, to maintain competence, and to continue personal and professional growth. Hinduism also believes in the value of preserving ones self, through meditation, yoga, and healthy living. The quest for personal growth is a great task to a Hindu, whose purpose in life is to grow not just as an individual, but also to grow to serve the greater needs of the religion. Both Hinduism and the ANA Code of Ethics place great emphasis on the importance of self-preservation and

development of personal character that may reflect on each respectively in a positive manner. References Campbell, A. (2006, December). Spiritual Care of Sick Children of Five World Faiths. Pediatric Nursing, 18(10), 22-25. Coward, H., & Sidhu, T. (200, October 31). Bioethics for Clinicians: 19. Hinduism and Sikhism. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 163,(9) 1167-1170. Darr, K. (2002, Winter). Cultural, Ethic, and Religious Diversity in Service Delivery. Hospital Topics, 80(1), 29-33. Jayaram, V. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.hinduwebsite.com Johnsen, L. (2009). The Complete Idiots Guide to Hinduism (2nd ed). New York, New York: Penguin Group. Lachman, V.D. (2009). Practical Use of Nursing Code of Ethics: Part I. MEDSURG

Nursing, 18(1), 55-57. Lachman, V.D. (2009). Practical Use of Nursing Code of Ethics: Part II. MEDSURG Nursing, 18(3), 191-194. Sarma, D. (2008, Spring). Hindu Bioethics?. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, 36(1), 51-58. Sivanada, S.S. (2010). Hindu Ethics: the Foundational Principles of Hindu Ethics. http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/hindu Spring, S., MD (n.d.) Code of Ethics of Nurses with Interpretative Statements. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.com

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