Growing Sectionalism

Growing Sectionalism

GROWING SECTIONALISM THE BUILD UP TO THE CIVIL WAR: Sectional disputes eroded the spirit of nationalism. *SECTIONALISM = loyalty to your region/section of country (north or south), rather that country as a whole (U.S.A) Industry prospered in the North, while an agricultural economy dependent on slavery grew strong in the South. Regional differences

began to define political life. THE SOUTHERN ECONOMY Based on several cash crops (tobacco, rice, sugarcane) Cotton = major cash crop In 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which combed the seeds out of cotton bolls greatly increased cotton production in South (& need for slave labor!) SLAVERY & SLAVE CODES

Most enslaved African Americans worked in the fields. State slave codes forbade enslaved persons from owning property or from leaving their owners land without permission Could not own firearms Could not testify in court against a white person. Could not learn to read and write * BLACK CODES POST-EMANCIPATION Mexican American War & Slavery Issue Mexican-American War U.S.

gained new territory should these new lands allows slavery? increased sectionalism South: expand slavery VS. North: do not let spread or abolish altogether Wilmot Proviso = proposed that in any territory the U.S. gained from Mexico, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude would ever exist. outraged Southerners Free-Soil Party: opposed slavery in the free soil of western territories

The Debate Over Missouri In 1819 Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state DEBATE: should slavery be able to expand westward? The Union had 11 free states & 11 slave states. Admitting any new state, either slave or free, would upset the balance of political power in the Senate. Federal government vs.

The Missouri Compromise Called for admitting Maine as a free state & Missouri as a slave state. An amendment was added to the compromise that prohibited slavery in the territory north of Missouri's southern border (latitude 3630). John Quincy Adams: I take it for granted, that the present question is a mere preamble

Temporary solution Overturned by KansasNebraska Act THE ELECTION OF 1824 Four candidates ran for president in 1824. All from the Democratic-Republican Partywere favorite sons, or men who had the support of leaders from their own state and region. FAVORITE SONS: Henry Clay of Kentucky and Andrew Jackson of Tennessee represented the West. Jackson ran on his military legacy. John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts was the favorite

son of New England & favored national bank, nationwide improvements William Crawford of Georgia had the support of the South & ran on the principle of states rights & strict interpretation of the Constitution. *SECTIONAL TENSIONS REFLECTED IN POLITICS (region not party mattered) THE CORRUPT BARGAIN Jackson won popular vote, but no candidate won a majority in the Electoral College election to the House of Representatives to select the president from the 3 candidates with the highest # of electoral votes. Clay was eliminated, so he threw his support to John Quincy Adams.

Adams won the House vote. Clay was Speaker of the House & disliked Jackson (political rivals in West) Jacksons nephew accused Clay of winning votes for Adams in return for the cabinet post of secretary of state. Jacksons supporters accused Adams/Clay of a corrupt bargain. THE ELECTION OF 1824 & POLITICAL DIVISIONS Those in opposition to Adams presidency (supporters of Jackson) banded together to

eventually form the Democrats, to stress differences with Adams party the National Republicans. Eventually politics of the Civil War would pit Northern Republicans in favor of industry against Southern Kansas Nebraska Act Kansas-Nebraska Act = passed by the U.S. Congress 1854. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas & Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders (popular sovereignty)

rather than federal gov. The Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 3630. Issue of slavery would be decided by the residents of each territory, a concept known as popular sovereignty = residents of the new territories would vote on whether slavery would be legal in the territories Infuriated many in the North who considered the Missouri Compromise to be a long-standing binding agreement vs. pro-slavery South strongly supported Bleeding Kansas Pro-slavery & anti-slavery supporters rushed in to settle Kansas to

affect the outcome of election over free vs. slave Problem with popular sovereignty = voter fraud, results lacked legitimacy Violence soon erupted, with the anti-slavery forces led by John Brown. The territory earned the nickname "bleeding Kansas" as the death toll rose. For awhile, 2 separate state governments existed in Kansas- one pro-slavery & one anti-slavery (precursor to Civil War on a national scale) Browns Raid on Harpers Ferry 1859 John Brown & abolitionist supporters captured prominent citizens & seized the federal

armory/arsenal. Brown hoped the local slave population would join the raid & through the raids success weapons would be supplied to slaves and freedom fighters throughout the country; this was not to be. Abolitionist John Brown Americas 1st Terrorist? Americans either regarded him as a noble hero (northern abolitionists) or a dangerous fanatic (southerners). The controversy over his

actions & his fate helped stoke the tensions that pushed the United States to the brink of Civil War. South sees North as physically attacking/threatening them After his execution on December 2, 1859, Brown became a martyr to those opposed to slavery. Charged with treason against the state of Virginia, murder, & slave insurrection. om/watch?v=bB_kbFA ui-U SECTIONALISM EMERGES Souths agricultural economy relies on slavery Northern leaders view slavery as morally wrong Missouri Compromise pits Northern leaders against Southern leaders Disputed election of 1824 leads to return to two-party political system (Republicans power in the North & Democrats power in the South) Congress votes almost strictly along sectional lines

Kansas Nebraska Act leads to violence

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