Greek Architecture Influences Americas Architecture Designed and Created by Ann Wesley CEP 817 Contents I. II. III. IV. What is Architecture? Architectural Terms
Brief History Architectural Influences Interactive page for the following topics. iv. Amphitheater Architecture in America v. Theaters Architecture in America vi. Arches Architecture in America vii. Monuments i. Doric Architecture Doric Architecture in America
ii. Ionic Architecture Ionic Architecture in America iii.Corinthian Architecture Corinthian Architecture in America Return to Architectural Influences Architecture in America viii. Aqueducts Architecture in America ix. Bath Houses Architecture in America ** PowerPoint notes contain
Web site notations. Next slide What is Architecture? Architecture (Noun) Is the art and science of designing buildings. The discipline dealing with the principles of design and co nstruction and ornamentation of fine buildings; The profession of designing buildings and environments w ith consideration for their esthetic effect. Architectural Terms Cornice is the set of crowning moldings that cap an entablature in Classical architecture.
cornice The Doric order is characterized by the series of triglyphs and metopes on the entablature. Each metope was occupied by a panel of relief sculpture. triglyph metope Architrave:The word is derived from the Greek word for main beam. architrave
Capital: The topmost element of the column, helps to transfer loads from beams to columns. capital flute Shaft: The long round section of a column between the base and the capital. shaft Doric Return Corinthian Return
Brief History Ancient Greece is considered by most historians to be the cultural foundation of Western Civilization. Greek culture was a powerful influence in the Roman Empire, which carried a version of it to many parts of Europe. Ancient Greek civilization has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, art and architecture of the modern world.
The Roman Empire's influence on government, law, and monumental architecture, as well as many other aspects of Western life remains visible today. Architectural Influences (Select an area of interest and explore.) Doric Column Ionic Column Corinthian Column
The Doric style is rather sturdy and its top (the capital), is plain. The columns are fluted. This style was used in mainland Greece and the colonies in southern Italy and Sicily. Doric Architecture In Doric columns: On the architrave, there are triglyphs and metopes. At the top of the columns, there's a capital made of a
sort of small pillow in stone, and then a square block, under the architrave. The columns have no base, but just sit right on the floor. Doric Architecture in America Doric Columns used on the porch of a house. Justice Hall, New York City, New York Ionic Architecture
The Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. The capital is decorated with a scroll-like design (a volute). This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands Maps
Ionic Architecture In Ionic columns: At the top of the columns, there's a double curve in stone, under the architrave. They are still fluted, but they have more flutes than Doric columns. The columns have a small base to stand on, instead of sitting right on the floor. Ionic Architecture in America Garden Statuary, Stockbridge, MA
Residence Residence Mason, Mason, Michigan Michigan Corinthian Architecture The Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples.
The capital is very elaborate and decorated with acanthus leaves Corinthian Architecture In Corinthian columns: On the architrave, as in Ionic temples, there is a continuous frieze where the triglyphs and metopes would be on a Doric temple. At the top of the columns,
on the capital, there's a stone carving of acanthus leaves, under the architrave. The columns have a fancier base to stand on. Corinthian Architecture in America Duveen's Gallery, New York City, NY New York University, Hall of Fame Terrace, New York
Corinthian Architecture in America Corinthian column used on outside portico (porch) of: State Of Michigan Capital Building. Blue Prints Drawing; 1865 State of Michigan Capital Building, Lansing, MI Completed in 1879 Corinthian Architecture in America State of Michigan Capital Building,
Lansing, MI 1879 Corinthian Architecture in America Capital Building, Washington, D.C. Under the pediment, looking upward at the coffered (decorative, sunken panel) ceiling, outside the Capital Building, Washington, D.C. Amphitheaters Amphi- means "around" in Greek.
Amphi-theatres are "theatres in the round" The amphitheatre was the place where people went to see fights. These fights were between slaves, prisoners of war or criminals, and sometimes wild animals
They were usually outdoor arenas where people watched sporting events and plays. Amphitheaters in America Michigan State University, Stadium Arlington, Virginia Theaters Dodoni Ancient Greek Theater, Northwest Greece
The theater was shaped with a half circle or orchestra space in front of the stage. The structure was built into a hillside and the wall behind the stage structure was relatively low. To solve the problem of lighting and sound - the theaters were outdoors.
Dodoni was a vital center from about 2000 BC and flourished well into the Roman times. Greek Theater Formation Orchestra: The orchestra (literally, "dancing space") was normally circular. Theatron: The theatron (literally, "viewing-place") is where the
spectators sat. Skene: The skene (literally, "tent") was the building directly behind the stage. Parodos: The parodoi (literally, "passageways") are the paths by which the chorus and some actors made their entrances and exits.
Theaters - American Boston Pops, Massachusetts Arches The Arch of Constantine; background right, the Colosseum. An arch is a curved structure capable of spanning a space while supporting significant weight.
The arch was developed in Ancient Greece and later refined in Ancient Rome. Arches were used by for underground structures such as drains and vaults. The ancient Romans were the first to use them widely above ground.
Arches in America Public Library, interior 1897 New York Union Station, interior 1908 Washington, DC Monument Roman monuments were constructed using the arch and had the details carved into them. Arch of Constantine 315 A.D.
The arch was usually very big and was a prominent feature of the skyline of the town in which it was located. Monuments in America General Grant National Memorial, New York, 1897 Plymouth Rock, Canopy over rock, Plymouth, MA Aqueducts
Aqueducts provided water for people in a town or village. The Greek had underground canals and galleries, hewn out of the rock to lead the water to dry pastures. The Romans were the first to construct aqueducts the way we know them: --a line of arches joined together, with a channel on the top to carry water. Pont Du Gard The Romans did not built aqueducts in Italy only, but also in Germany, France, Spain, and Turkey.
Aqueduct Technology Closed pipes were occasionally used to cross valleys by the "inverted syphon" method. The pressure forced the water down and up again on the other side, to a level slightly lower than before. Aqueducts in America Croton Aqueduct, New York City, NY, 1842 Provide clean water to the growing city. Cabin John Bridge, Washington Aqueduct, Washington, DC, 1852
Bath Houses Aqueducts provided the water to the public baths. Heated and cooled baths. Dirty water was replaced with clean water. Exercise and message
rooms were available. Bath House - Heating The system the Romans had for maintaining their baths. In the cold and hot areas, the water temperature was actually regulated by the use of underground fire furnaces. Baths Houses in America Bath houses Spas provide:
Skin Care Mud Baths Salt Scrubs Body Wraps Herbal Baths Mineral Baths Aromatherapy Exercise room Facial Treatment Message Therapy Summary
Greeks and Romans influenced the worlds architecture. Notice the similarities of the architecture between the continents. Arches developing strong support for Bridges Monuments - honoring Health Spas / Bath Houses
Buildings - National, Offices, Houses, Aqueducts bringing water to areas in need Travel East, across the Atlantic Ocean and visit Rome, Italy. What similarities did you notice?
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