GERIATRIC MEDICINE GRAND ROUNDS January 5th, 2012 TOPIC ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION IN ELDERLY PRESENTER Aman Haider, MD 1st Year Fellow Geriatric Medicine Baylor College of Medicine 1 SECTIONS Introduction , Definitions & Background of Orthostatic Hypotension (OH) Epidemiology of OH Pathogenesis of OH Etiology of OH Clinical Presentation of OH Evaluation of OH Management of OH
2 INTRODUCTION , DEFINITION & BACKGROUND OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION 3 INTRODUCTION Orthostatic (postural) hypotension (OH) is a common disorder. Frequently under diagnosed. Frequent cause of syncope. Contributes to morbidity, disability and even mortality. It is a SYNDROME, and its prognosis depends on : Its Specific Cause Its Severity The Distribution of its Autonomic or Non-Autonomic involvement. 4
DEFINITION ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION is a reduction of Systolic blood pressure of at least 20 mm Hg OR Diastolic blood pressure of at least 10 mm Hg Within 3 minutes of standing. An acceptable alternative to STANDING : Demonstration of a similar drop in blood pressure within 3 minutes Using a tilt table in the head-up position At an angle of at least 60 degrees Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470 5 LIMITATIONS OF DEFINITION Limitations: Does not take into account :
The possibility that different blood pressure declines may have different clinical significance. Blood pressure changes that may occur after 3 minutes of standing. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470 6 CONFOUNDING VARIABLES Should be considered before making the diagnosis : Food ingestion Recent recumbency Time of day State of hydration Ambient temperature Postural deconditioning Hypertension and anti-hypertensive medications Gender Age
Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470 7 EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION 8 PREVALENCE AMONG NURSING HOME RESIDENTS One Study to Determine Patterns Of Within-day Orthostatic Blood Pressure Changes Cross Sectional study with 911 residents from 45 nursing homes . Aged 60 years or older, able to stand for at least 1 minute. Supine ,1-minute and 3-minute standing BP + HR were measured. Before and after breakfast and before and after lunch. No OH = 48.5% Only once = 18.3%
2-3 times = 19.9% 4 or more times = 13.3% Most prevalent before breakfast, especially 1 minute after standing (21.3%) Least prevalent after lunch, after 3 minutes of standing (4.9%) Ooi WL, Barrett S, Hossain M, Kelley-Gagnon M, Lipsitz LA. Patterns of orthostatic blood pressure change and their clinical correlates in a frail, elderly population. JAMA. 1997 Apr 23-30; 277(16):1299-304. 9 PREVALENCE IN COMMUNITY- DWELLING ELDERLY A study to Assess Prevalence of Orthostatic Hypotension and its Associations. A multicenter, observational, longitudinal study . Enrolled 5,201 men and women aged >65 yrs. Prevalence 14.8% for those age 65 to 69 and 26% for those age >85 OH was associated significantly with : Difficulty walking (odds ratio, 1.23) Frequent falls (odds ratio, 1.52) H/o MI (odds ratio, 1.24) H/o TIA (odds ratio, 1.68) Isolated systolic hypertension (odds ratio, 1.35) Major EKG abnormalities (odds ratio, 1.21)
Presence of carotid artery stenosis based on ultrasound (odds ratio, 1.67) Negatively associated with weight. Rutan GH, et al. Orthostatic hypotension in older patients. The cardiovascular health study. CHS collaborative research group. Hypertension. 19(6 Pt 1):508-519, June 1992 10 PATHOGENESIS OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION 11 NORMAL POSTURAL CHANGES IN BP Normal BP response on moving from a supine to a standing position : Small reduction (<10 mm Hg) in SBP & increase in DBP (~ 2.5 mm Hg). Gravity Induced Drop Approximately 500 to 1000 ml of blood is pooled in the lower extremities and in the splanchnic and pulmonary circulations. Response (Baroreflex) : Gravity Induced Drop Decreased venous return to the heart
Transient reduction in CO and BP Stimulation of the baroreceptors in carotid arteries and aorta Reflexively increased sympathetic tone Increased PVR (Vasoconstriction) Inhibits parasympathetic activity Increased HR Restoration of CO and BP by an increase in HR and PVR. 12 POSTURAL CHANGES IN ELDERLY Age-Related Changes that can effect normal BP Regulation : 13 ETIOLOGY OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION 14 ETIOLOGY 15
Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 DRUG THAT MAY WORSEN OH Figueroa JJ, Basford JR, Low PA, Preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: As easy as A, B, C. 16 Cleve Clin J Med, 77:2010, 298-306. CLINICAL FEATURES OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION 17 SYMPTOMS Symptoms that develop On assuming erect posture, OR Following head-up tilt, and usually Resolve on resuming the recumbent position. Symptoms include : Lightheadedness, dizziness, blurred vision, weakness, fatigue, cognitive impairment, nausea, palpitations, tremulousness, headache,
and neck ache (Coat Hanger Ache) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 1996;46:1470. In Elderly, disturbed speech, visual changes, falls, confusion, and impaired cognition are more common. 18 Rutan GH, Hermanson B, Bild DE, et al. Orthostatic hypotension in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. Hypertension. 1992; 19:508-519. OH A PREDICTOR OF MORTALITY Orthostatic Hypotension Predicts Mortality in Elderly Men The Honolulu Heart Program A cohort of 3522 Japanese American men 71 to 93 years old. Total of 473 deaths in the cohort over 4 years. 52 of those who died had orthostatic hypotension 4 year all cause mortality = Relative Risk 1.64 ( 95% CI 1.19 to 2.26 ** ) ** With the use of Cox proportional hazards models, after adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, body mass index, physical activity, seated systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, hematocrit, alcohol intake, and prevalent stroke, coronary heart disease and cancer
Masaki KH, Schatz IJ and Burchfiel CM. Orthostatic hypotension predicts mortality in elderly men: the Honolulu Heart Program. Circulation. 1998; 98: 2290-2295 19 PROGNOSIS OF OH In patients who have extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders (eg, PD , MSA) The earlier and the more severe the involvement of the autonomic nervous system, the poorer the prognosis - Sandroni P, Ahlskog JE, Fealey RD, Low PA. Autonomic involvement in extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders. Clin Auton Res 1991; 1:147155. - Saito Y, Matsuoka Y, Takahashi A, Ohno Y. Survival of patients with multiple system atrophy. Intern Med 1994; 33:321325. In hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus, the risk of death is higher if they have orthostatic hypotension. Luukinen H, Koski K, Laippala P, Kivel SL. Prognosis of diastolic and systolic orthostatic hypotension in older persons. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159:273280.
Diastolic OH is associated with a higher risk of vascular death in older persons. Hoeldtke RD, Streeten DH. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension with erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:611 615. 20 EVALUATION OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION 21 EVALUATION IN ER SETTING Syncope may be the initial presentation. A study to evaluate cause of syncope in 611 patients presenting at the ER. 24 % had orthostatic hypotension. Sarasin FP, Louis-Simonet M, Carballo D, et al. Prospective evaluation of patients with syncope: a population-based study. 22
Am J Med. Aug 15 2001;111(3):177-84 EVALUATION IN INPATIENT CARE SETTING The annual nationwide inpatient sample (NIS), sponsored by the AHRQ During 2004, 80,095 orthostatic hypotension- related hospitalizations. OH listed as the primary diagnosis in 28,073 (35%) hospitalizations. Most frequent secondary diagnoses were : Atrial fibrillation (10.7%) Hypertension (8.9%) Syncope (8.2%) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (7.7%) Congestive heart failure (6.7%) Urinary tract infection (4.6%) Shibao C, Grijalva CG, Raj SR, Biaggioni I, Griffin MR. Orthostatic hypotension-related hospitalizations in the United States. Am J Med. 2007 Nov;120(11):975-80 23 EVALUATION IN OUTPATIENT CARE SETTING More likely to have Chronic Etiologies
Referred from the ER or hospital upon discharge for further testing. Usually have vague/ undifferentiated symptom description. Discontinuing vs changing medications MRI can be used to assess for possible etiologies of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Further testing as indicated. 24 EVALUATION Evaluation Of Suspected OH Begins by identifying reversible causes Underlying associated medical conditions. In addition to assessing for symptoms of orthostasis Elicit symptoms of autonomic dysfunction involving the GI and GU tract. Detailed assessment of the motor nervous system should be performed to evaluate for signs of parkinsons disease, as well as cerebellar ataxia.
25 EVALUATION OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION 26 Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 HISTORY HISTORICAL FEATURES POSSIBLE ETIOLOGY Abnormal Uterine Bleeding, Fatigue, Rectal Bleeding Anemia Amaurosis Fugax, Aphasia, Dysarthria, Unilateral Sensory & Motor Stroke Symptoms
AIDS, Neurosyphilis Progressive Motor Weakness GBS , Multiple System Atrophy Relapsing Neurologic Symptoms In Various Anatomic Locations Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms After A Meal Postprandial Hypotension 27 Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension ; American Family Physician Volume 84, Number 5 ; September 1, 2011 PHYSICAL EXAM Obtain Orthostatic Vital Signs. Supine Blood Pressure and pulse after 3 minutes
Standing Blood Pressure and pulse after 3 minutes As many as 2/3rd of patients may go undetected if BP is not measured while supine. Carlson JE. Assessment of orthostatic blood pressure:measurement technique and clinical applications. South Med J 1999; 92: 167173. One retrospective review of 730 patients found that vital signs had poor test characteristics when compared with tilt-table testing for the diagnosis of OH. PPV = 61.7 % NPV= 50.2 % Cooke J, Carew S, OConnor M, Costelloe A, Sheehy T, Lyons D. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are not accurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. QJM. 2009;102(5):335-339. 28 PHYSICAL EXAM EXAMINATION FINDINGS POSSIBLE DIAGNOSIS
Aphasia, Dysarthria, Facial Droop, Hemiparesis Stroke Cogwheel Rigidity, Festinating Gait, Lack Of Truncal Rotation While Turning, Masked Facies Parkinson Disease Confusion, Dry Mucous Membranes, Dry Tongue, Longitudinal Tongue Furrows, Speech Difficulty, Sunken Eyes, Upper Body Weakness Dehydration (In Older Patients) Decreased Libido, Impotence In Men; Urinary Retention And Incontinence In Women Pure Autonomic Failure.
Dependent Lower Extremity Edema, Stasis Dermatitis Right-sided Congestive Heart Failure, Venous Insufficiency Gummas, Unequal Pupils (Argyll Robertson Pupil) Loss Of Position And Vibration Senses Tabes Dorsalis Early Satiety, Postprandial Fullness, Constipation, Incontinence, Exercise Intolerance Diabetic Neuropathy Smooth Beefy Red Tongue, Lemon Pallor, Recent Loss Of Mental Capacity, Paresthesias, Ataxia Pernicious Anemia 29
Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension ; American Family Physician Volume 84, Number 5 ; ANCILLARY TESTS / IMAGING Ancillary Tests BASIC METABOLIC PROFILE Conditions Suspected BUN & Cr Intravascular volume depletion Electrolyte abnormalities from vomiting or diarrhea, or as cause of cardiac Electrolytes conduction abnormalities; clues to adrenal insufficiency (Dec Na & K) Serum Glucose Hyperglycemia
Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension ; American Family Physician Volume 84, Number 5 ; HEAD UP-TILT (HUT) Indications for Head-up tilt testing High probability of OH despite an initial negative evaluation (e.g., PD) Patients with significant motor impairment that precludes them from having standing vital signs obtained. Lahrmann H.; Cortelli P.; Hilz M.; Mathias C.J.; Struhal W.; Tassinari M. EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management of orthostatic hypotension. Eur. J. Neurol. 2006, 13, 930-936 To monitor the course of an autonomic disorder and its response to therapy. Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):841-847 31 PROCEDURE OF HUT Perform tilt-table testing in a quiet room with a temperature of 68F to 75F. The patient should rest while supine for 5 minutes before testing is
started. Continuous HR monitoring and blood pressure monitoring at regular intervals. The table should be slowly elevated to an angle between 60 to 80 * for 3 minutes. The test is considered Positive if systolic blood pressure falls 20 mm Hg below baseline or if diastolic blood pressure falls 10 mm Hg below 32 EVALUATION The procedure is generally considered safe, but serious adverse events such as syncope and arrhythmias have been reported. 33 RESPONSES TO HEAD-UP TILT TABLE TESTING
Condition Normal Dysautonomia Neurocardiogenic syncope ( Occurs after 10 minutes or more of testing ) Response HR increases by 10 to 15 beats per minute DBP increases by 10 mm Hg or more No increase in heart rate
Immediate and continuing drop in systolic and diastolic blood pressure Bradycardia Symptomatic, sudden drop in blood pressure Orthostatic hypotension SBP decreases by 20 mm Hg or more or DBP decreases by 10 mm Hg or more Postural orthostatic Heart rate increases by at least 30 beats/ minute 34
or Management of Orthostatic Hypotension 35 GOALS DO NOT CHASE THE NUMBERS .!!!! Goals should be directed towards : Ameliorating symptoms Relieving orthostatic symptoms
Improving the patients functional status Improving standing time Reducing the risk of complications. Improving OH without excessive hypertension Correcting any underlying cause No specific or single treatment is currently available that achieves all these goals. Drugs alone are never completely adequate. 36 SUPINE HYPERTENSION Supine hypertension is a problem. Resulting from medication and/or being part of the disease.
24 h measurement of BP is best if diagnosis uncertain. After starting a new therapy. Patients may self-monitor BP, daily at about the same time, and when they experience symptoms. Pressor medications should be avoided after 6pm and the bed head elevated (2030 cm). On occasion, short acting antihypertensive drugs may be considered
(e.g. Nitro-glycerine sublingual). Lahrmann H.; Cortelli P.; Hilz M.; Mathias C.J.; Struhal W.; Tassinari M. EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and 37 management of orthostatic hypotension. Eur. J. Neurol. 2006, 13, 930-936 MANAGEMENT PNEUMONIC ABCDEF A Abdominal compression B Bolus of water B Bed up C Countermaneuvers D Drugs E Education E Exercise F Fluids and salt 38 NON-PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT
A : Abdominal and Lower Extremity Binders Podoleanu C, Maggi R, Brignole M, et al. Lower limb and abdominal compression bandages prevent progressive orthostatic hypotension in elderly persons: a randomized single-blind controlled study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48(7):14251432. B : Upto 1 to 2 L of fluid/ day to balance expected 24-hour urine losses increase standing SBP by > 20 mm hg for approx. two hours. Shannon JR, Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, et al. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med. 2002;112(5):355-360 B : Raise the head of the bed 10 to 20 degrees (~ 4 inches ) pts with autonomic
failure and supine hypertension reduce nocturnal hypertension and diuresis helps restore morning blood pressure upon standing. Van Lieshout JJ, Ten Harkel AD, Wieling W. Fludrocortisone and sleeping in the head-up position limit the postural 39 decrease in NON-PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT D : D/c culprit medications If unable to D/C culprit medications; advise patient to take at bedtime such as anti-hypertensives. Freeman R. Clinical practice. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(6):615-624 . E : Education Symptom diary avoid identified precipitating factors Avoid large carbohydrate-rich meals (to prevent postprandial
hypotension) Limit alcohol intake Lahrmann H.; Cortelli P.; Hilz M.; Mathias C.J.; Struhal W.; Tassinari M. EFNS guidelines on the diagnosis and management of orthostatic hypotension. Eur. J. Neurol. 2006, 13, 930-936 E : Exercise programs improves conditioning. Squatting has been used to alleviate symptomatic OH Toe raises, thigh contractions, and bending over at the waist are recommended 40
NON-PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT F : Fluid & Salts Upto 1 to 2 L of fluid/ day increase standing SBP by > 20 mm hg. Shannon JR, Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, et al. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med. 2002;112(5):355-360 Sodium supplementation adding extra salt to food or taking ~ 1 to 2 gms of salt tablets TID. A 24-hour urine sodium level can aid in treatment. Value of <170 mmol per 24 hours, should be placed on 1 to 2 g of supplemental sodium three times daily
Reevaluate in one to two weeks Goal of raising urine sodium to between 150 and 200 meq. Patients should be monitored for weight gain and edema. Low PA, Singer W. Management of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension: an update. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(5):451458 41 FLUDROCORTISONE A synthetic mineralocorticoid. Reducing salt loss and expanding blood volume.
Hussain RM, McIntosh SJ, Lawson J, Kenny RA. Fludrocortisone in the treatment of hypotensive disorders in the elderly. Heart 1996; 76:507509. Sensitization of alpha-adrenoceptors. First line therapy (monotherapy) approved by FDA in 1955. Initial dose is 0.1 mg per day with increments of 0.1 mg every week. May be increased to 0.4 to 0.6 mg/day in refractory cases. Dose titration needed until : Resolution of the symptoms OR Patient develops trace peripheral edema OR Weight gain of 4 to 8 lbs OR
The maximum dose of 1 mg per day is reached. Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):841-847. 42 FLUDROCORTISONE After oral administration, Peak plasma levels ~ 45 min Elimination half-life ~ 7 h. Adverse effects include :
Headache Supine hypertension Congestive heart failure Hypokalemia Dose-dependent In one study, hypokalemia in 24% of patients with mean onset at 8 months. Hussain RM, McIntosh SJ, Lawson J, Kenny RA. Fludrocortisone in the treatment of hypotensive disorders in the elderly [published correction appears in Heart. 1997;77(3):294]. Heart. 1996;76(6):507-509.
43 MIDODRINE Prodrug with an active metabolite, Desglymidodrine. Peripheral selective alpha-1 adrenergic agonist; cause vasoconstriction. Absolute bioavailability ~ 93% The elimination half-life ~ 23 h Duration of action ~ 4 h. First approved by FDA in 1996. Significantly increase systolic BP avoid last dose after 6 pm to avoid supine HTN.
Improve symptoms in patient with Neurogenic Hypotension. Synergistic effect when combined with fludrocortisone. Starting dose = 2.5 mg 3 times per day. Then 2.5 mg weekly increments until a max. of 10 mg TID is reached. 44 MIDODRINE Adverse effects : Supine Hypertension (25%) Piloerection/ goose bumps (13%) Pruritis (scalp-10% & general- 2%)
FDA has issued a recommendation to withdraw midodrine from the market because of a lack of post-approval effectiveness data. 45 PROSTAGLANDIN INHIBITORS Block the vasodilating effects of prostaglandins raise the BP in some patients. Gupta V, Lipsitz LA. Orthostatic hypotension in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2007 Oct; 120 (10):841-847. In elderly patients, indomethacin should be avoided because of associated confusion. All NSAIDS should be used with caution due to gastrointestinal and renal side effects. 46
CAFFEINE Adenosine-receptor blocker . Inhibits adenosine induced vasodilatation by blocking these receptors. Methylxanthine Caffeine Administered in a dose of 200 mg every morning as 2 cups of brewed coffee or by tablet. May attenuate symptoms in some patients. To avoid tolerance and insomnia, caffeine should not be given more
then once in the morning. 47 ERYTHROPOIETIN Exact mechanism of action is unknown Effect is probably due to increased red cell mass and blood volume. Shown to be effective in a subgroup of patients with anemia and autonomic dysfunction. Hoeldtke RD, Streetan DHP. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension with erythropoietin. N Engl J Med. 1993;329:611-615. Principal disadvantage of this drug is the Parenteral route of administration. Serious side effects include:
Hypertension Stroke Myocardial infarction 48 PYRIDOSTIGMINE Cholinesterase inhibitor Potentiates sympathetic baroreflex pathway. Approved by FDA : Myaesthenia Gravis (1955)
Bioterrorism Increase survival after exposure to Soman "nerve gas" poisoning (2003) Off-Label use for Orthostatic Hypotension Used for patients with mild to moderate hypotension due modest pressor effect. Does not aggravate supine hypertension. Enhanced effect when taken with Midodrin 5 mg. Starting Dose : 30 mg TID increased to 60 mg TID. 180 mg slow release pyridostigmine (Mestinon Timespan) can be taken once a day. 49 PYRIDOSTIGMINE Adverse effects :
Loose stools Diaphoresis Hypersalivation Fasciculations 50 OCTREOTIDE Somatostatin Analogue Inhibits release of gastrointestinal peptides, some of which cause vasodilation.
Administered subcutaneously starting with 2550 mcg. In patients with pure autonomic failures : Reduces postural, post-parandial and exertional hypotension. Does not cause or increase nocturnal hypertension. 51 OTHER AGENTS CLONIDINE
Peripheral alpha 2-adrenergic agonist May improve OH in patients with CNS causes of autonomic failure : By promoting peripheral venoconstriction. Thereby increasing venous return to the heart. YOHIMBINE Central alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist. 52 INDICATION FOR REFERRAL Referral Specialist Indications
Multiple comorbid conditions Geriatrician Failure of standard therapy to alleviate symptoms Complications, including recurrent falls, fracture, functional decline, ischemic events, decreased quality of life Cognitive decline and confusion Frail elderly patients Uncontrolled supine hypertension despite standard therapy Cardiologist Advanced coronary artery disease or severe ischemic symptoms Severe left ventricular diastolic or systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction30%) Recent onset of tachy-/bradyarrhythmia Neurologist Specialized diagnostic testing for autonomic failure
Chronic and progressive autonomic failure 53 SUMMARY Regardless of whether OH is symptomatic or asymptomatic, the elderly patient remains at significant risk for future falls, fractures, TIA and MI. The diagnostic evaluation of OH should include a comprehensive history and physical examination, careful blood pressure measurements, and laboratory studies. Goals of treatment in the elderly patient include ameliorating symptoms, correcting any underlying cause, improving the patients functional status, and
reducing the risk 54 of complications, rather than trying to attain an arbitrary blood pressure SUMMARY In most cases, treatment begins with nonpharmacological interventions, including withdrawal of offending medications (when feasible), physical maneuvers, compression stockings, increased intake of salt and water, and regular exercise. If nonpharmacological measures fail to improve symptoms, pharmacologic agents should be initiated. Fludrocortisone, midodrine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, caffeine, and erythropoietin have all been used to treat orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. 55 REFERENCES
Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. The Consensus Committee of the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 1996;46(5):1470. Ooi WL, Barrett S, Hossain M, Kelley-Gagnon M, Lipsitz LA. Patterns of orthostatic blood pressure change and their clinical correlates in a frail, elderly population. JAMA. 1997;277(16):1299-1304. Rutan GH, Hermanson B, Bild DE, Kittner SJ, labaw F, Tell GS. Orthostatic hypotension in older adults. The Cardiovascular Health Study. CHS Collaborative Research Group. Hypertension. 1992;19(6 pt 1):508-519. Freeman R. Clinical practice. Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. N Engl J Med.
2008;358(6):615-624 Sandroni P, Ahlskog JE, Fealey RD, Low PA. Autonomic involvement in extrapyramidal and cerebellar disorders. Clin Auton Res 1991; 1:147155. Saito Y, Matsuoka Y, Takahashi A, Ohno Y. Survival of patients with multiple system atrophy. Intern Med 1994; 33:321325. Uukinen H, Koski K, Laippala P, Kivel SL. Prognosis of Diastolic and systolic orthostatic hypotension in older Persons. Arch Intern Med 1999; 159:273280. 56
Davis BR, Langford HG, Blaufox MD, Curb JD, Polk BF, Shulman NB. The association of postural REFERENCES Hoeldtke RD, Streeten DH. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension with erythropoietin. N Engl J Med 1993; 329:611615. Sarasin FP, Louis-Simonet M, Carballo D, Slama S, Rajeswaran A, Metzger JT, et al. Prospective evaluation of patients with syncope. Am J Med 2001;111:177-84 Biaggioni I, Griffin MR. Orthostatic hypotension-related hospitalizations in the United States. Am J Med. 2007 Nov;120(11):975-80 Carlson JE. Assessment of orthostatic blood pressure: measurement technique and clinical
applications. South Med J. 1999;92(2):167-173. Cooke J, Carew S, OConnor M, Costelloe A, Sheehy T, Lyons D. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are not accurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension. QJM. 2009;102(5):335-339. Lamarre-Cliche M, Cusson J. The fainting patient: value of the head-upright tilt-table test in adult patients with orthostatic intolerance. CMAJ. 2001;164(3):372-376. Jamnadas-Khoda J, Koshy S, Mathias CJ, Muthane UB, Ragothaman M, Dodaballapur SK. Are current recommendations to diagnose orthostatic hypotension in Parkinsons disease satisfactory? Mov Disord. 2009;24(12):1747-1751. 57 THANK YOU
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