Geographies of Student Choice - Geographical Association

Geographies of Student Choice - Geographical Association

Geographies of Student Choice GCSE Paul Weeden School of Education 1 Changing entry patterns National Entries for GCSE Geography N u m b e r o f e n trie s 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Year 2 Contextualising student subject choice

External Factors National Government policy National Curriculum Personalisation Core subjects KS4 Whole School Type of School; School location; Student Intake; School Leadership; Policies and Practice Mechanism Opinion formers Departments Media Employers Educationalists Politicians Subject Associations Subject leaders, Teachers, Curriculum, Pedagogy, Marketing

Structure of option choice system System Creation Organisation Who decides? Who has input? What constraints? Tracks Are there fixed paths? Allocation to paths? Subjects Allocation to subjects Who decides? Student Local Parents, Peers, Community Local Authority Personality Aptitude Motivations

Aspirations Perceptions Compulsory + Optional Number to choose Advice Who gives advice? When and how? Action Decision making Student chooses subjects Outcome Choice and allocation of subjects 3 Subject entries by type of school 4

Subject Entries by Centre Type 2009 5 Geography entries 2007 6 Distribution of entries by Local Authority 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Minimum entry 16.0%

17.2% 16.4% 11.0% 11.5% Mean entry 32.8% 31.0% 29.5% 28.6% 27.9% Maximum entry 47.0% 45.9% 46.4%

42.4% 41.9% 7 Rural / urban patterns % of geography entries 2003 % o f L A s in g r u p 70% 60% 50% low est entries 40% middle entries 30% highest entries 20% 10% 0% Major Urban

Large Urban Other Urban Signif icant Rural Predominantly Rural Type of LA Major Urban: in settlement >750000 Large Urban: 250000-750000 Other Urban: < 26% rural Significant Rural: 26-50% rural Predominantly Rural: 50% rural 8 Changes in performance Proportion of students gaining an A*-C grade 80.0

70.0 Geography Female A*-C Percentage of total entry 60.0 Geography Male A*-C 50.0 40.0 History Female A*-C 30.0 History Male A*-C 20.0 10.0 0.0 2000 2001

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year 9 Comparisons with history Geography and History GCSE entries 350000 300000 Entries 250000 200000

history 150000 geography 100000 50000 0 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 1990

1988 Year 10 Changing entry by gender Entry for Geography and History by Gender Percentage of total entry 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 Geography female Geog male 10.0 Hist female 0.0 2008

2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 Hist male Year 11 Types of school (Newsam) 12 The five fold school classification

Selective Comprehensive plus balanced profile approximately equal numbers in each attainment quartile Comprehensive minus all abilities majority in the top 50% of attainment. Comprehensive

highest 10-20% of the student cohort. all abilities majority in bottom 50% of attainment Modern comprehensives very few students in the top 50% of attainment. At least 50% in the lowest attainment quartile. 13 Entries by type of school Key: Type of School 1 Selective 2 Comprehensive plus 3 Comprehensive 4 Comprehensive minus 5 Modern 6 Small 14 City A: Changes over time

15 City A: Changes in entries by type of school 16 County B: Changes in entries by type of school 17 The relationship to deprivation 18 Entry patterns for other subjects Media Entries 2007 Mean = 10.0 % Religious Studies Entries 2007 Mean = 24.4 % History Entries 2007

Mean = 30.9 % 19 Conclusions GCSE is a quasi-market yearly fluctuations Falling entries for geography In top ten GCSEs Gendered entry 44-45% Girls; 55-56% Boys A*-C grades rising School location: Regional / local variations South > north; Rural > Urban;

Higher deprivation = lower entries Other subjects history > geography in 2004 pattern of entry different 20 Contextualising student subject choice External Factors National Government policy National Curriculum Personalisation Core subjects KS4 Whole School Type of School; School location; Student Intake; School Leadership; Policies and Practice Mechanism Opinion formers

Departments Media Employers Educationalists Politicians Subject Associations Subject leaders, Teachers, Curriculum, Pedagogy, Marketing Structure of option choice system System Creation Organisation Who decides? Who has input? What constraints? Tracks Are there fixed paths? Allocation to paths?

Subjects Allocation to subjects Who decides? Student Local Parents, Peers, Community Local Authority Personality Aptitude Motivations Aspirations Perceptions Compulsory + Optional Number to choose Advice Who gives advice? When and how? Action Decision making

Student chooses subjects Outcome Choice and allocation of subjects 21

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