GENETICS UNIT STUDY GUIDE - Thomas County Schools

GENETICS UNIT STUDY GUIDE - Thomas County Schools

GENETICS UNIT STUDY GUIDE 1 The passing of traits from parents to

offspring is known as heredity. 2 The study of heredity is called genetics.

3 Sperm cells and egg cells are called sex cells. 4

Chromosomes are fine thread-like structures in the cells nucleus that control heredity. 5 A gene is part

of the chromosome that controls inherited traits. 6 An organism is said to be homozygous,

or a purebred if it has two like genes for the same trait. 7 Organisms that have two unlike traits are heterozygous or

hybrids for that trait. 8 The gene that always shows itself is the dominant

gene. 9 The hidden gene is called the recessive gene. 10

A Punnett square is a chart used to show possible gene combinations. 11

Incomplete dominance is when no allele is completely dominant over the other. Ex.: red and white flowers that produce pink offspring. 12

When both alleles of a gene are expressed its called codominance. Ex.: when a black chicken and a white chicken produce black and white offspring

13 X and Y chromosomes determine gender. For example, XX is female. XY is male. 14

Human traits are determined by 23 pairs of chromosomes. 15 Sex-link disorders are

hereditary disorders like hemophilia and color blindness that are passed down from parents to offspring. 16 Women who have

one normal gene and one gene for a sexlinked disorder are said to be carriers of the disorder. 17 Scientists study the traits of past generations to predict

the traits of future offspring. One way they do this is by making a pedigree which is a chart similar to a family tree. 18 A disease that is

caused by an abnormal gene passed down from a parent is called an inherited disease. 19 Mating organisms to

produce offspring with certain traits is called controlled breeding. 20 Today, new organisms can be made in a laboratory and an

organisms DNA may be changed. The methods used to produce new forms of DNA are called genetic engineering. 21

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