Genetics PowerPoint #2

Genetics PowerPoint #2

Genetics PowerPoint #2 Co-Dominance and Blood-typing, Incomplete Dominance, Genetic Disorders and Karyotyping, Pedigrees and Genetic Inheritance Environmental Influence, Sex-Linked Traits In this presentation Slides 3-4: Punnett Square Slide 5-7: Co-Dominance and Blood-typing Slide 8: Incomplete Dominance

Slide 9: Sex Linked Traits (X-Linked Traits) Slides 10 & 12: Meiosis Slides 13-25: Karyotypes and Genetic Disorders Slides 26-27 :Pedigrees and Genetic Inheritance Slides 28 & beyond: Assignments From EOC coach book Monohybrid Cross (Punnett Square) Used to determine phenotype and genotype of offspring (F 1 generation). Phenotype = physical (color, shape, appearance)

Genotype = gene or allele (Aa, AA, aa) Dominant = trait always displayed (AA, Aa) Recessive = trait always masked; only expressed when homozygous (aa) Allele Meaning AA Homozygous Dominant Aa Heterozygous Aa

Homozygous recessive Monohybrid Cross (Punnett Square) Example: The trait for brown eyes is dominant to blue eyes (b). Show a cross between a parent (P1) with blue eyes, and a parent that is heterozygous for brown eyes. b b B

b Bb bb P1: Bb x bb bb F 1:

50% Bb (brown eyes), 50% bb (blue eyes) Bb Co-Dominance All traits are DOMINANT (no recessive; lowercase alleles) In co-dominance, both traits are expressed. Red Fish(R) x Blue Fish (B) = Red/Blue Fish

Co-Dominance and Blood Typing Blood Type A B AB O Allele AA (dominant) or Ai (heterozygous) BB (dominant) or Bi (heterozygous)

AB ii Always assume that in blood-typing, that the question is referring to the heterozygous allele (Ai or Bi), unless otherwise stated Use the Punnett Square to determine blood type Co-dominance and Blood Typing What do you think? Is it possible for a mother

with Type A blood and a father with Type B blood to produce a child with Type O blood? Yes, its possible! If both parents are heterozygous for the blood type Incomplete dominance All traits are DOMINANT (no recessive; lower cased alleles) In incomplete dominance, traits blend together. Ex. Red flowers (R) x White flowers (W) = Pink Flowers

Sex-Linked Traits X-Linked Traits Affects the sex chromosomes (pair #23) Most Sex Linked Traits affect the X chromosome. Males are more affected by sex-linked traits because they only have one X chromosome Females are often carriers because they have two X chromosomes Female Sex Chromosomes XX

(carrier) She has an extra X, so shes safe Male Sex Chromosomes XY (affected) He only has one X, so he has the disease Meiosis Makes Gametes (sex cells) Divides adult chromosome number in half (haploid); so that

parents only pass 23 chromosomes to offspring. Meiosis I: Homologous chromosomes a) Crossing Over (swapping of chromosomes from mom & dad). Occurs in Prophase I b) Law of Independent Assortment: states that alleles (genes) that you receive from your parents sort RANDOMLY; during Meiosis when your gametes are being made. The reason why you are genetically different, and look different from parents. c) Non Disjunction (chromosomes do not separate properly), adding one chromosome, causing Down Syndrome, Klinefelters, Turner Syndrome Meiosis II: Sister Chromatids End result; four daughter cells with 23 chromosomes. Meiosis II

and Mitosis are similar Meiosis Divides chromosomes number in half so there are only 23 chromosomes in gametes 23 mom + 23 dad = 46 you! Crossing Over Two diploid

daughter cells with 46 chromosomes Chromosomes break apart, exchanging genetic material II II

Four haploid daughter cells with 23 chromosomes Events in meiosis Crossing Over: Occurs in Prophase I, where the chromosomes break, and exchange genetic material Why organisms look different than parents

Non-disjunction: failure of chromosomes to separate properly, causing organism to have extra chromosome (Trisomy 21) Karyotypes and Genetic Disorder Karyotypes are mapping of human chromosomes A normal human karyotype has 46 chromosomes (diploid), and 23 pair (haploid). Chromosomes 1-22 are called autosomes. The sex chromosomes are the 23rd pair

Males are XY; females are XX Normal Male Karyotype (XY) Male (XXY) Klinefelters Syndrome Males have an extra X Chromosomes Smaller genital region Develops breasts 47 chromosomes total

Klinefelter Male Female Down Syndrome Karyotype Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome) Extra chromosome @ pair #21 Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

Female Turner Syndrome (XO) Female with 45 chromosomes total. Missing and X chromosome. Infertile Does not go through puberty Non-functioning reproductive organs

Female (Turner Syndrome) XO Cystic Fibrosis Thick mucus in the lungs and digestive tract Mainly affects Caucasian population 1 in 28 Americans carries the trait. Caused by defective protein in cell membrane.

Treated with special diet, and physical therapy. Tay-Sachs Disease Caused by recessive trait An important enzyme (protein) is missing that breaks down lipids (fat) in the central nervous system. Fat (lipids) accumulates

in the CNS causing damage Sickle Cell Anemia Primarily affects the African-American Community Red blood cells are crescent shaped Pain in the extremities Caused by Point (substitution) mutation

Patients with SCA are immune to Malaria PKU (Phenylketonuria) Recessive disorder Missing an enzyme that converts the amino acid Phenylalanine into Tyrosine. Phenylalanine cannot be broken down by the body and causes damage to the CNS Patients treated with diet low

in phenylalanine Phenylalanine is found in many diet sodas. Huntingtons Disease

Degeneration of Nerve Cells (neurons) Cognitive impairment Inability to focus Muscle rigidity No treatment Death in 1-5 years Neuron Apoptosis (neurons die)

Pedigree Key Male Affected Male Female Affected Female Marriage (Union) A pedigree is a mapping of genetic inheritance. A

family tree of disease. Carrier Pedigrees and Genetic Inheritance Independent Assignment List Green EOC Coach Book: COACH BOOKS DO NOT GO HOME!!!!! Read each lesson, and answer the questions that follow. Write the question AND the

answer! QUIZ GRADE. Due Tuesday, April 29th. 1) Lesson 20: The Structure and Function of DNA. Pp 142-147. Answer Questions 1-4 on page 146-7 2) Lesson 21: The Structure and Role of RNA. Pp 148-152. Answer questions 1-5 on page 153. 3) Lesson 22: Genetics: Pp 154-159. Answer questions 1-4 on page 161 Lesson 23: Meiosis and Genetic Variation. Pp 162-165. Answer questions 1-4 on pg. 166 4) Lesson 25: Genetic Disorders. Pp. 172-175. Answer questions 1-3 on page 177 5) Lesson 26: DNA Technology. Pp 178-183. Answer questions 1-3 on page 185. 6) Chapter 4 Review: pp. 186-192; answer questions 1-18

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Welcome! [jan.ucc.nau.edu]

    Welcome! [jan.ucc.nau.edu]

    Grocery Store. Pharmacy. Hardware Store. In your kitchen. Common Household Chemicals. Common Kitchen Items. Inexpensive Equipment. Join the mailing list to enter the equipment raffle! For digital microscopes, maybe a purchase and re-sell program through your bookstore? The Plan!
  • Zoos: Myth and Reality Online Article by Rob

    Zoos: Myth and Reality Online Article by Rob

    INTRODUCING THE PERSUASIVE TEXTS The writers of the selections you're about to read have different views on whether or not zoos are good for humans and animals. LIST IT With a partner, discuss the good things and bad things about...
  • oregongearup.org

    oregongearup.org

    GEAR UP Resources. Half Circle (Advanced) ... Drawing. group, click . Shapes, and then under . Basic Shapes, click . Arc (third row, twelfth option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw an arc. Drag the right ....
  • Title of presentation

    Title of presentation

    Achieved a qualification on first language Welsh or English/Literacy and Mathematics/numeracy at level 2 of the National Qualifications framework equivalent to GCSE A-C, or above and they must be able to provide proof of the details of those qualifications.
  • ABC BOOK of Text Features

    ABC BOOK of Text Features

    Text features can be found in textbooks, magazine articles, reports, web pages, and other forms of non-fiction text. O is for. ClOse Up- Helps the reader see up close and with detail. P is for. Photographs-Helps the reader better understand...
  • Composition of Soil - University of Dayton

    Composition of Soil - University of Dayton

    The amount of water in the soil is one thing that can affect the amount of air. Very wet soil like you would find in a wetland probably has very little air. The composition of the soil affects the plants...
  • Aflatoxin: A One Health Issue - University of Pittsburgh

    Aflatoxin: A One Health Issue - University of Pittsburgh

    Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2008 Jul;25(7):872-84. MarroquĂ­n-Cardona A, Deng Y, Garcia-Mazcorro J, Johnson NM, Mitchell N, Tang L, Robinson A 2nd, Taylor J, Wang JS, Phillips TD. Characterization and Safety of Uniform Particle...
  • The Effective Reader by D. J. Henry

    The Effective Reader by D. J. Henry

    Synonym signal words are: or, that is Example: The dentist gave me laughing gas to alleviate (or ease) the pain of taking out my wisdom teeth. Antonyms An antonym is a word that has the opposite meaning of another word....