General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Petteri Lappalainen 23.11.1998 IP Tech School Seminar Presentation Based on the material by Tuomas Niemel (-97), Hannu H. Kari (-98) and ETSI NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 1 Wireless roadmap NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 2 Contents 1. Introduction to GPRS What is GPRS ? GPRS characteristics Applications 2. GPRS architecture Network elements 3. GPRS Operations Radio interface resource reservation Security operations Connecting to GPRS Data transfer Mobility management

Interworking with GSM services NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 3 4. Special issues SMS Charging O&M Supplementary services QoS Performance 5. GPRS business view What must be invested How to make money with GPRS Users' benefits of GPRS Business model 6. GPRS specifications 1. Introduction to GPRS 1.1. What is GPRS ? 1.2. GPRS access interfaces and reference points 1.3. How is GPRS seen by external networks and GPRS users 1.4. Air interface resources 1.5. GPRS characteristics 1.6. Applications NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS

IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 4 1.1. What is GPRS ? Part of GSM phase 2+ General Packet Radio Service General -> not restricted to GSM use (DECT ?, 3rd generation systems ?) Packet Radio -> enables packet mode communication over air Service, not System -> existing BSS (partially also NSS) infrastructure is used Requires many new network elements into NSS Provides connections to external packet data networks (Internet, X.25) Main benefits Resources are reserved only when needed and charged accordingly Connection setup times are reduced Enables new service opportunities NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 5 1.2. GPRS access interfaces and reference points R reference point TE

Um MT MS Gi reference point GPRS network 1 PDNs or other networks Gp GPRS network 2 GPRS provides packet switched connections from MS to packet data networks (PDN) Different operators GPRS networks are connected through Gp interface NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 6 1.3. How is GPRS seen by external networks and GPRS users? HOST 1 5 5 .2 2 2 .3 3 .5 5 GPRS SUBNETW ORK SUBNETW ORK

1 5 5 .2 2 2 .3 3 .X X X " R o u te r " SUBNETW ORK 1 3 1 .4 4 .1 5 .X X X SUBNETW ORK 1 9 1 .2 0 0 .4 4 .X X X C o r p o r a te 1 R o u te r HOST 1 9 1 .2 0 0 .4 4 .2 1 Local a re a n e tw o r k NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 7 P acket D a ta nn ee twt wo rok r k R o u te r C o r p o r a te 2 ( In te r n e t)

Local a re a n e tw o r k HOST 1 3 1 .4 4 .1 5 .3 1.4. Air interface resources An example of occupied TCH capacity by CS traffic during busy hour with n% blocking GPRS "steals" any TCH capacity not used by CS traffic 14 Free Capacity 12 10 8 TCH 6 4 14 2

12 Capacity occupied by CS traffic TCH 10 8 0 6 1:00 PM 4 2 0 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0:00 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 8 1:15 PM 1:30 PM

1:45 PM 1.5. GPRS characteristics GPRS uses packet switched resource allocation resources allocated only when data is to be sent/received Flexible channel allocation one to eight time slots available resources shared by active users up and down link channels reserved separately GPRS and circuit switched GSM services can use same time slots alternatively Traffic characteristics suitable for GPRS Intermittent, bursty data transmissions Frequent transmissions of small volumes of data Infrequent transmission of larger volumes of data NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 9 1.6. Applications Standard data network protocol based IP based applications WWW, FTP, Telnet, ... Any conventional TCP/IP based applications X.25 based applications Packet Assembly/Disassembly (PAD) type approach GPRS specific protocol based Point-to-point applications Toll road system, UIC train control system

Point-to-multipoint applications Weather info, road traffic info, news, fleet management SMS delivery (GPRS as a bearer for SMS) NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 10 2. GPRS architecture 2.1. Interfaces, reference points and network elements 2.2. Functional view on GPRS 2.3. Subscription of GPRS service 2.4. New network elements 2.4.1. GGSN 2.4.2. SGSN 2.4.3. Other elements 2.4.4. GPRS backbones 2.5. GPRS Mobile classes 2.6. MS multislot capabilities NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 11 2.1. Interfaces, reference points and network elements SMS-GMSC SMS-IWMSC MAP-H SM-SC MAP-C

Gd MSC/VLR Gs A TE MT R HLR MAP-D Gb BSS Um Gc Gr SGSN Gp Gi PDN GGSN Gn

MAP-F EIR GGSN Other PLMN Signalling Interface Signalling and Data Transfer Interface NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 12 TE 2.2. Functional view on GPRS R/S Um BTS Packet network PSTN BSC MSC Gb Packet Inter-PLMN

network Backbone network Serving GPRS Support Node Gn (SGSN) Border Gateway (BG) Intra-PLMN backbone network (IP based) Gp Firewall Point-ToMultipoint Service Center (PTM SC) Gn Gr IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 13 Gr Packet SS7 network Network

Gs GPRS INFRASTRUCTURE Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) EIR Corporate 1 Server MAP-F Firewall Gi.IP Gi.X.25 Data Packet network network (X.25) SMS-GMSC Gd Router

Firewall NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS Gs Gd HLR/AuC Data Packet network network (Internet) Local area network Corporate 2 Server Router Local area network Assignment of functions to general logical architecture

Function Network Access Control: Registration Authentication and Authorisation Admission Control Message Screening Packet Terminal Adaptation Charging Data Collection MS X X BSS SGSN X X X GGSN X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Mobility Management: X X X Logical Link Management: Logical Link Establishment Logical Link Maintenance

Logical Link Release X X X X X X Packet Routeing & Transfer: Relay Routeing Address Translation and Mapping Encapsulation Tunnelling Compression Ciphering Radio Resource Management: Um Management Cell Selection Um-Tranx Path Management NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 14 HLR X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 2.3. Subscription of GPRS service (1/2) Subscription storage: HLR Supports Multiple Subscriber Profile (MSP) Mobile identification: IMSI One or several PDP addresses per user Each subscribed configuration contains

PDP type (e.g., IP, X.25) PDP address (static, e.g. 128.200.192.64) Subscribed QoS (level 14) Dynamic address allowed VPLMN address allowed GGSN address Screening information (optional) NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 15 2.3. Subscription of GPRS service (2/2) Subscription is copied from HLR to SGSN during GPRS Attach Part of PDP context is copied to relevant GGSNs when a PDP address is activated Possible PDP address allocation alternatives Static address allocated from HPLMN Dynamic address allocated from HPLMN Dynamic address allocated from VPLMN HPLMN operator specifies which alternatives are possible NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 16

2.4.1. Gateway GPRS Support Node GGSN Typically located at one of the MSC sites One (or few) per operator Main functions Interface to external data networks Resembles to a data network router Forwards end user data to right SGSN Routes mobile originated packets to right destination Filters end user traffic Collects charging information for data network usage Data packets are not sent to MS unless the user has activated the PDP address NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 17 2.4.2. Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN Functionally connected with BSC, physically can be at MSC or BSC site One for few BSCs or one (or few) per every BSC One SGSN can support BSCs of several MSC sites Main functions Authenticates GPRS mobiles

Handles mobiles registration in GPRS network Handles mobiles mobility management Relays MO and MT data traffic TCP/IP header compression, V.42bis data compression, error control MS- SGSN (ARQ) Collect charging information of air interface usage NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 18 2.4.3. Other elements BG (Border Gateway) (Not defined within GPRS) Routes packets from SGSN/GGSN of one operator to a SGSN/GGSN of an other operator Provides protection against intruders from external networks DNS (Domain Name Server) Translates addresses from ggsn1.oper1.fi -format to 123.45.67.89 format (i.e. as used in Internet) Charging Gateway Collects charging information from SGSNs and GGSNs PTM-SC (Point to Multipoint -Service Center) PTM Multicast (PTM-M): Downlink broadcast; no subscription; no ciphering PTM Group call (PTM-G): Closed or open groups; Down/up -link; ciphered Geographical area limitation NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 19 2.4.4. GPRS backbones Enables communication between GPRS Support Nodes Based on private IP network IPv6 is the ultimate protocol

IPV4 can be used as an intermediate solution Intra-PLMN backbone Connects GPRS Support Nodes of one operator Operator decides the network architecture LAN, point-to-point links, ATM, ISDN, ... Inter-PLMN backbone Connects GPRS operators via BGs Provides international GPRS roaming Operators decide the backbone in the roaming agreement NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 20 2.5. GPRS mobile types Class A: Simultaneous GPRS and conventional GSM operation Supports simultaneous circuit switched and GPRS data transfer Class B: Can be attached to both GPRS and conventional GSM services simultaneously Can listen circuit switched and GPRS pages (via GPRS) Supports either circuit switched calls or GPRS data transfer but not simultaneous communication Class C: Alternatively attached in GPRS or conventional GSM No simultaneous operation GPRS only mobiles also possible (e.g. for telemetric applications) NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 21

2.6. GPRS multislot capabilities 1-slot MS RX 0 1 MS TX 5 6 MS RX 0 1 MS TX 5 6 MS RX

0 1 MS TX 5 6 2 3 7 4 0 5 6 7 0 1 1 2

3 4 5 6 Monitor 2-slot 2 7 3 4 0 5 6 7 0 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 Monitor 3-8 -slot 2 7 3 4 0 1 5 2 6 7

0 1 3 4 5 6 Monitor 3 slots: NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 22 4th slot: 5th slot: 3. GPRS operations 3.1 Security: Basic security rules Authentication, key management, ciphering 3.2 GPRS attach 3.3 Data transmission MO, MT, MO+MT 3.4 Mobility management 3.5 Interworking with GSM services

NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 23 3.1. Security: Based on GSM phase 2 Authentication SGSN uses same principle as MSC/VLR: Get triplet, send RAND to MS, wait for SRES from MS, use Kc MS cant authenticate the network Key management in MS Kc generated same way from RAND using Ki as in GSM Ciphering Ciphering algorithm is optimized for GPRS traffic (GPRS - A5) Ciphering is done between MS and SGSN User confidentiality IMSI is only used if a temporary identity is not available Temporary identity (TLLI) is exchanged over ciphered link NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 24 3.2. GPRS Attach GPRS Attach function is similar to IMSI attach Authenticate the mobile Generate the ciphering key Enable the ciphering Allocate temporary identity (TLLI) Copy subscriber profile from HLR to SGSN After GPRS attach The location of the mobile is tracked

Communication between MS and SGSN is secured Charging information is collected SGSN knows what the subscriber is allowed to do HLR knows the location of the MS in accuracy of SGSN NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 25 3.3. Data transfer: Basic rules (1/4) SGSN: Does not interpret user data, except SGSN may perform TCP/IP header compression Does not interpret source or destination addresses Sends all packets to specified GGSN that handles the PDP context GGSN: Performs optional filtering Decides where and how to route the packet NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 26 3.3. Data transfer (2/4) Mobile originated (left when MS in HPLMN, right when in VPLMN, no filtering/screening) BTS BSC BSC

SGSN BG HPLMN I nPt ear -cP kL Me Nt b na cek tbwo noe r k n e tw o r k SGSN BG In t r a -P L M N backbone n e tw o rk (IP b a s e d ) In t r a -P L M N backbone n e tw o r k (IP b a s e d ) GGSN GGSN DPaat ca k e t nneet wt wo or kr k (In te r n e t) C o rp o ra te S erve r

R o u te r NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 27 BTS Local are a n e tw o r k VPLM N 3.3. Data transfer (3/4) Mobile terminated (left when MS in HPLMN, right when in VPLMN, with/without filtering/screening) BTS BSC BSC SGSN BG HPLMN I nPt ear -cP kL Me tN b na cek tbwo noe r k n e tw o rk

SGSN BG In tr a -P L M N backbone n e tw o rk ( IP b a s e d ) In t r a -P L M N backbone n e tw o rk (IP b a s e d ) GGSN GGSN DPaat ca k e t nneet wt wo or kr k (In te r n e t) C o rp o ra te S erve r R o u te r NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 28 BTS Local

a re a n e tw o rk VPLMN 3.3. Data transfer (4/4) Mobile originated and terminated (left MSs in same PLMN, right MSs in different PLMN) BTS BSC BSC SGSN BG HPLMN SGSN I nPt ear -cP kL Me tN b na cek tbwo noe r k n e tw o r k SGSN BG In tr a -P L M N backbone n e tw o r k (IP b a s e d )

In tr a -P L M N backbone n e tw o r k (IP b a s e d ) GGSN GGSN DPaat ca k e t nneet wt wo or kr k (In te r n e t) BTS BSC C o rp o ra te S erve r R o u te r NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 29 BTS Local a re a n e tw o r k

VPLM N 3.4. Mobility management (1/3) Instead of Location Area, GPRS uses Routing Areas to group cells. RA is a subset of LA. IDLE: MS is not known by the network (SGSN) STANDBY: MSs location is known in accuracy of Routing Area MS can utilize DRX (to save battery) MS must inform its location after every Routing Area change (no need to inform if MS changes from one cell to another within same Routing Area) Before the network can perform MT data transfer MS must be paged within the Routing Area MS may initiate MO data transfer at any time NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 30 3.4. Mobility management (2/3) READY: MSs location is known in accuracy of cell MS must inform its location after every cell change MS can initiate MO data transfer at any time SGSN does not need to page the MS before MT

data transfer MS listens continuously GPRS PCCCH channel DRX in READY state is optional NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 31 3.4. Mobility management (3/3) Mobility management messages: Cell update (implicit, with any message) When MS changes the cell within a Routing Area in READY state Routing Area update When MS changes the cell between two Routing Areas in READY or STANDBY state Two types of Routing Area Updates (from MSs point of view only one type) Intra-SGSN Routing Area Update Inter-SGSN Routing Area Update Periodic Routing Area updates are applicable NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 32 3.5. Interworking with GSM services (1/3) GPRS can interwork with GSM services through Gs- interface If no Gs interface exists:

Type of the location update procedure is indicated by the network in the response message to MS Effects on different MS classes if Gs does not exist: A-class mobiles must use conventional GSM services via normal GSM channels B-class mobiles wont get simultaneous support from the network. Depending on MS design MS can try listen both paging channels simultaneously by themselves MS does IMSI detach and use only GPRS service No effect on C-class mobiles as simultaneous services are not supported NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 33 3.5. Interworking with GSM services (2/3) Combined GPRS and IMSI attach To save radio resources MS indicates its request for combined attach MS sends combined GPRS and IMSI attach to SGSN SGSN may authenticate the MS SGSN informs MSC/VLR about the new MS Combined Location and Routing Area update To save radio resources MS indicates its request for combined update This is done when both Location Area and Routing Area changes at the same time Combined Location and Routing Area update is not done if MS has CS connection NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS

IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 34 3.5. Interworking with GSM services (3/3) Paging CS services via GPRS network MSC/VLR gets MT call or SMS In VLR, presence of SGSN address tells that the MS is in GPRS attached state MSC/VLR sends the paging request to SGSN address (not to BSC) SGSN checks the location of MS (identified by IMSI) SGSN pages the MS via GPRS channels indicating CS page status MS replies to the page using normal GSM channels NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 35 4. Special issues 4.1. SMS 4.2. Charging 4.3. O&M 4.4. Supplementary services 4.5. Quality of Service 4.6. Performance NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 36 4.1 Special issues: SMS support MO and MT SMSs can be carried via GPRS network HLR stores and returns two SS7 addresses to GMSC:

SGSN address MSC/VLR address Primary route: Via SGSN, if available Secondary route: Via MSC/VLR, if available and primary failed NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 37 4.2 Special issues: GPRS charging of PTP (1/2) SGSN gathers charging: usage of radio resources (packets, bits) usage of packet data protocols (time) usage of general GPRS resources e.g. signaling messages, GPRS backbone GGSN gathers charging : based on destination/source of data packets usage of external data networks (packets, bits) usage of general GPRS resources Operator selects what information is used for billing NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 38 4.2 Special issues: GPRS charging of PTM (2/2) SGSN gathers usage of: usage of radio resources

amount of data geographical areas number of repetition usage of general GPRS resources PTM Service Center gathers charging : usage of general GPRS resource usage of PTM-G groups NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 39 4.3 Special issues: Operation and management GSM related parts can be handled with Q3 GPRS backbone network is based on IP network IP network uses Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) G P R S /G S M O M C BTS BSC In te r - o p e r a to r 's G P R S bac kbone m anagem ent P acket In te r - o p e r a to r b na cek tb w o n oe r k

n e tw o r k SGSN GPRS backbone n e tw o r k ( IP b a s e d ) IP ROUTER O p e r a to r B 's G P R S backbone m anagem ent GGSN O p e r a to r A 's G P R S bac kbone m anagem ent NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 40 D a ta n e tw o r k m anagem ent DPaatac k e t n ne etwt wo or kr k ( In te r n e t) 4.4 Special issues: Supplementary services

Most of the conventional GSM supplementary services are not applicable for GPRS E.g., Call forwarding when busy, Calling line identification, Call waiting Some supplementary services may be applicable Advice of charge (can be difficult to realize) Closed user group (can be implemented as part of external data network) GPRS has its own supplementary services Barring of GPRS Interworking Profile(s) NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 41 4.5 Quality of Service Precedence class (1,2,3) Delay class (1-4) Reliability class Peak throughput class; and Mean throughput class. NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 42 4.5.1 Reliability Class Data reliability is defined in terms of the residual error rates for the following cases (see GSM 02.60): Probability of data loss Probability of data delivered out of sequence Probability of duplicate data delivery

Probability of corrupted data NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 43 4.5.2 Throughput classes Peak Throughput Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mean Throughput Class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 44 Peak Throughput in octets per second Up to 1 000 (8 kbit/s). Up to 2 000 (16 kbit/s). Up to 4 000 (32 kbit/s). Up to 8 000 (64 kbit/s). Up to 16 000 (128 kbit/s). Up to 32 000 (256 kbit/s). Up to 64 000 (512 kbit/s). Up to 128 000 (1 024 kbit/s). Up to 256 000 (2 048 kbit/s). Mean Throughput in octets per hour Best effort. 100 (~0.22 bit/s). 200 (~0.44 bit/s). 500 (~1.11 bit/s). 1 000 (~2.2 bit/s). 2 000 (~4.4 bit/s). 5 000 (~11.1 bit/s). 10 000 (~22 bit/s). 20 000 (~44 bit/s). 50 000 (~111 bit/s).

100 000 (~0.22 kbit/s). 200 000 (~0.44 kbit/s). 500 000 (~1.11 kbit/s). 1 000 000 (~2.2 kbit/s). 2 000 000 (~4.4 kbit/s). 5 000 000 (~11.1 kbit/s). 10 000 000 (~22 kbit/s). 20 000 000 (~44 kbit/s). 50 000 000 (~111 kbit/s). 4.6 Performance 1/3 Example SGSN that handles 2 Mbps up and downlink traffic Average packet size 500 octets (4000 bits) => Each packet must be processed totally every 1 milliseconds IP stack in backbone possible UDP (de)fragmentation, IP checksums GTP header processing, finding the right context possible paging of the MS compression in SNDCP level, possible segmentation LLC CRC, LLC acknowledges, LLC timers handle GPRS ciphering/deciphering BSSGP protocol Frame relay protocol NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 45 4.6 Performance 2/3

Example continued Background tasks Ensuring the QoS for every mobile Scheduling pending packets to time horizon Rescheduling everything after MS has changed the cell Handling charging data collection Performance monitoring Handle SGSN operating system, task switching, etc. Handle diagnostics of the network element If SGSN handles 65 Mbps, instead of 2 Mbps? => SGSN has just about 30 micro seconds to do all above NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 46 4.6 Performance 3/3 Solution to the example Each network element has limited capacity (x packets/second) If operator needs more capacity (e.g. 50x) use 50 parallel boxes for example, every GGSN boxes are really independent of each other each SGSN handles its own area (list of cells)

Capacity grows linearly but complexity in each box remains the same Reliability? Configuration? NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 47 5. GPRS Business View 5.1. What must be invested to get GPRS up and running? 5.2. How to launch GPRS with minimised incremental cost 5.3. How to make money with GPRS? 5.4. Users' benefits of GPRS 5.5. Business model NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 48 5.1 What must be invested to get GPRS up and running? Updates on existing network elements BTS, BSC, MSC/HLR, O&M, billing system, network planning New network elements Totally new network for GPRS backbone, based on IP New packet network nodes A lot of Internet "stuff" (routers, DNS servers, firewalls, )

Totally new skills needed "Internet way" of thinking New mobiles and new type of users New type of business thinking NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 49 5.2 How to launch GPRS with minimised incremental cost A single SGSN/GGSN combined functional unit BTSs support basic GPRS services with software update only, BSCs need HW upgrade to add connection to SGSN Use existing paging and control channels for GPRS Limit the number of radio channels available for GPRS Gs interface can be deleted => no MSC developments NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 50 5.3. How to make money with GPRS? New users More subsribers

New services New ways to get money from users New intances to pay instead of the users (e.g. advertisers) New applications New ways to get money from users More data traffic More data traffic Small payments per packet, but huge number of packets NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 51 5.4. Users' benefits of GPRS GPRS Selling arguments: Higher capacity Internet access Up to 171,2 kbps in theory, 40 kbps in practice Quicker access to Internet No set up time, Iternet access all the time available Lower cost Flat rate or volume based billing Or no cost via anonymous access (somebody else pays the bill)

NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 52 5.5. Business model 1/2 If the users are paying little (or nothing), how does this make profit to the operator? Not the high cost per time but the large number of packets Somebody else may pay the bill (e.g. anonymous access) Example business model # subscribers Business users 100000 "Normal" users 1000000 Web surfers 1000000 Computers 100000 Total 2200000 QoS level Monthly Cost/kB Volume/ Monthly Total annual Total data fee (FIM) FIM day (FIM) cost/subs cost (MFIM) volume (GB) High

50 0,02 1000 650 780 36500 Normal 25 0,01 20 31 372 7300 Best effort 50 0 250 50 600 91250 High 50 0,1 20 110 132 730 1884 135780 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS

IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 53 5.5. Business model 2/2 Volume calculations Average data volume per day per hour per sec per sec 372 15,5 4,3 34,3 GB/d GB/h MB/s Mbps Peak hour data volume per year per day per hour per sec per sec

43800 120 30 8,3 66,7 GB/a GB/d GB/h MB/s Mbps Number of time slots needed 6667 TSs Carrier NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 54 833 Carriers all data in 4 busy hours average 10 kbps/TS 6. GPRS Standardization GPRS Phase 1: Release 97 Basic set of GPRS functionality Optional features

GPRS Phase 2: GPRS for UMTS Certain issues defined in stage 1 documents are not included in the first release of the GPRS standard New requirements have been pointed out for UMTS Standard was approved March/June 1998 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 55 6.1 List of participants The following companies and organizations have been participating in GPRS work in last 3 years Some of the manufacturers, operators and others participating GPRS standardization: Alcatel, BT, CNET, CSELT, Detemobil, Eplus, Ericsson, France Telecom, IBM, Inmarsat, Lucent, Mannesmann, Motorola, NEC, Nokia, Nortel/Matra, Omnipoint, OPI, Philips, SFR, Siemens, Telecom Finland, Telia, UIC, Vodafone EU sponsored project team PT8OV to expedite GPRS standardization Support of PT12 NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 56 6.2 GPRS Specifications GPRS document structure Doc.

Title 01.60 Requirements Specification of GPRS Stage 1 02.60 General GPRS Overview 10.60 GPRS standarsisation status and overview Stage 2 03.60 03.64 03.61 03.62 General System Description and Newtwork Architecture Radio Architecture Description Point to Multipoint Multicast (very draft) Point to Multipoint Group Call (non existing) New Stage 3 04.60 Radio stage 3: RLC/MAC Radio Protocol 04.61 PTM-M Services (not existing yet) 04.62 PTM-G Services (not existing yet) 04.64 LLC

04.65 SNDCP 07.60 User Interworking 08.18 BSSGP: The Gb Interface 08.16 Gb Network Service 08.14 Gb Layer 1 09.16 Gs Layer 2 09.18 Gs Layer 3 09.60 GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP): Gn & Gp Interface 09.61 External Interworking Networks NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS IP TECH SCHOOL seminar / 23.11.1998 / slide 57

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    CAP. lacI. lactose. We can draw this as gates. ... Glows green if IPTG is present; glows red if it is not present now but previously was. Assume: ... Cancer-hunting bacteria. Synchronized cycles of bacterial lysis for in-vivodelivery, Nature 2016...
  • Participatory Modeling of Complex Urban Infrastructure Systems (Model

    Participatory Modeling of Complex Urban Infrastructure Systems (Model

    Infrastructures (pipelines, roads, buildings) serve for human activities in the urban areas. Meanwhile, the increasing wealth and population stimulates the growth and renovation of infrastructures. In the micro level, the interconnection is determined by thousands, millions, even billions of decisions...
  • Final Exam Review 3preAP

    Final Exam Review 3preAP

    Total raw score= 200 points/ divide by 2 for exam final grade. Calendar of Events . Thurs., May 28- Speaking Test. Fri., May 29- Essay. Fri., May 29- Review packet due for a quiz grade. ... Final Exam Review 3preAP...
  • Lecture 18: Mandatory Access Control CS 5430 3/28/2018

    Lecture 18: Mandatory Access Control CS 5430 3/28/2018

    Biba model (integrity, military) Clark-Wilson (integrity, business) ... Brewer-Nash model. Object: contains sensitive information about companies. a file about Bank of America's trade secrets. but not its addresses, phone numbers, etc.
  • Welcome to Chemistry - Berkeley Heights Public Schools

    Welcome to Chemistry - Berkeley Heights Public Schools

    Experience and discover chemistry in the lab. ... 3-ring binder (1" or section of larger) Calculator. Spiral or other bound notebook to use to record lab data. Textbook signout sheet. Cover (actually back) sheet of student/parent information packet.
  • Summer Presentation

    Summer Presentation

    What is that verb in its infinitive form? LAVAR To say "wash oneself" (like washing your own hands), the infinitive looks the same, but then add an -SE to the end. LAVARSE To conjugate reflexive verbs, you must only know...