EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Project Report Terry Saxton Xtensible Solutions May 13, 2009 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models CIM for Dynamic Models EPRI project started March 2008 Project Objectives Technical Approach Extend the CIM and develop a set of interface profiles to support the exchange of dynamic cases (dynamic models and associated static network models) Builds from the EPRI CIM for Planning project extensions to the CIM UML Challenge 2 Develop a standard way to exchange dynamic models for each generator, load or other resource in a power system network How to model the interconnectivity between dynamic models and their association to the static network model EPRI CIM for

Dynamic Models Business Needs Addressed Enable conduct of dynamic assessment studies involving simulation for Users include transmission planners and regional reliability organizations During planning stage During operational life of each resource Sources include 3 Contingency analysis to ensure reliability of transmission grid Post mortem evaluation of conditions leading up to a catastrophic event Planning to determine where network upgrades are needed New plant commissioning which may require new dynamic models from supplier Transmission, generation, or other resource owners Manufacturers of equipment EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Status of Key Deliverables UCTE

IOP Test Dynamic Case Definition Standard Model exchange User-Defined Model exchange CIM modeling 4 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Dynamic Case Definition Profile Contents The Dynamic Case Profile will contain the following data sets: UCTE profile Plus ??? Minus ??? Extensions for the Standard Models Extensions for the User-Defined Models The actual Case Files used in an exchange will contain this data in Profile Data Groups UCTE IOP tested the static load flow models plus network solutions EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Dynamic Case Contents UCTE Base State Variables SvVoltage SvPowerFlow

TopologicalNode TopologicalIsland SvShuntCompensatorSections SvTapStep TSO Topology Terminal (about) TSO Equipment Model GeographicalRegion SubGeographicalRegion EnergyConsumer Substation PowerTransformer VoltageLevel RatioTapChanger ReactiveCapabilityCurve ControlArea ControlAreaGeneratingUnit TieFlow ShuntCompensator Switch Terminal MutualCoupling ACLineSegment CurveData SeriesCompensator TransformerWinding UCTE Common Objects CurrentLimit

VoltageLimit RegulatingControl SynchronousMachine LoadResponseCharacteristic OperationalLimitSet PhaseTapChanger BaseVoltage FossilFuel GeneratingUnit NuclearGeneratingUnit HydroGeneratingUnit ThermalGeneratingUnit WindGeneratingUnit HydroPump OperationalLimitType EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Dynamic Case Definition Case Composition The Dynamic Case will contain Profile Data Groups as CIM XML files Common Objects PDG File - contains objects that are intended to be shared by all Equipment PDG File - describes the equipment without connectivity

Includes dynamic model system parameters Topology PDG File - contains all topology objects (result of Topology Processing) and describes how it is electrically connected State Variables PDG File - contains all objects required to complete the specification of a steady-state solution (i.e., the solved voltage, tap positions, etc.) Dynamic Model PDG File contains all objects required to specify both standard and user-defined dynamic models System parameters that are modeled as properties of PSR objects are in Equipment PDG file EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Standard Model Team Lead: Bill Price, Consultant, GE PSLF expert Members: 17 vendors, utilities, and NERC Charter: Develop the data requirements and mapping to the CIM for the exchange of standard models 8 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Types of Dynamic Model Exchanges Standard models Includes multiple standard models (IEEE, WECC, etc.) interconnected in a standard way

Goal 9 Generators (including wind turbines) Motors Excitation systems, limiters, and compensators Turbine/governor models Stabilizers Loads Transmission devices Relay and protection devices HVDC and FACTS Define standard model reference manual and list of standard models Extend CIM UML to model standard dynamic models and their interconnection Minimize amount of information included in dynamic case file EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Standard Model Team - Status List of standard models initial list complete Models used by WECC, MMWG, UCTE Corresponding models in PSLF, PSS/E, PowerFactory, EUROSTAG identified Standard Model Reference Manual

Detailed descriptions of standard models Standard interconnections Block diagrams/equations, parameters, typical data Sample step responses being added CIM class/attribute mapping in process More models to be added 10 Present models sufficient for initial IOP EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models List of Standard Models GENERATOR MODELS CIM Model Name GE PSLF PTI PSS/E* DigSILENT Eurostag genSync genrou GENROU ElmSym M2 GENTRA ElmSym ElmSym

M2 ElmSym M6 genSync genSync gensal GENSAL genSync genSync genSync gentpf gentpj gencc GENROU genEquiv gencls GENCLS genLoad "Netting" genAsync genind, motor1 CIMTR1,CIMTR3 ElmAsm wt1g wt2g wt3g wt4g M10, M13 WT1G WT2G

WT3G1 WT4G M1 M5 M11 M14 M15 M50 IEEE Standard MMW WEC UCTE Comments G C Round rotor generator model, use for thermal generator X X X models Transient generator model X Salient pole generator model, use for hydro generator X X X models WECC Type F model X X WECC Type J model X X Cross-compound generator model X X "Classical" generator model - used only for small X X generators or gross equivalents Generator represented as a negative load X X X

X X Induction generator model X X X X Type 1 standard wind turbine generator model Type 2 standard wind turbine generator model Type 3 standard wind turbine generator model Type 4 standard wind turbine generator model Synchronous machine, internal parameters, full model Synchronous machine, internal parameters, simplified model Asynchronous (induction) machine, simplified model Asynchronous (induction) machine, simplified model, macroblock defined torque Double Fed induction generator, induction generator model Converter model EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Standard Model Reference Manual Synchronous Generator Models For conventional power generating units (e.g., thermal, hydro, combustion turbine), a synchronous machine model represents the electrical characteristics of the generator and the mechanical characteristics of the turbine-generator rotational inertia. The standard interconnection variables between a synchronous generator model and other models are shown in the following figure and table: Efd Excitation System Ed, Eq* Ifd Synchronous Generator speed

TurbineGovernor angle Network Equations Id, Iq* Pmech * Network interface variables may differ among application programs Synchronous Generator Interconnection Variables The interconnection with the electrical network equations may differ among application programs. The program only needs to know the terminal bus and generator ID to establish the correct interconnection. Synchronous Generator Interconnection Variables Model Type Inputs: Name Efd Pmech Synchronous Generator Units p.u. p.u. Description Field voltage on base of Ifag * Rfd (field resistance) Mechanical shaft power to the generator Source Exciter Turbine EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Standard Model Team - Status Dynamic Case data requirements

Data, other than model data, need to be defined, e.g. Case name / description Corresponding static data set(s) System base frequency Reference generator for rotor angles Numerical time step Low voltage threshold for load change to constant Z Test 13 Cases UCTE 10 Node model Siemens PTI sample model More to come EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models User-Defined Model Team Lead: Chuck Dubose, Siemens PTI, PSSE expert Members: 11 vendors, utilities, NERC, and UCTE Charter: Develop list and definition of control blocks for user-defined models, and map dynamic case data to the CIM UML 14 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Types of Dynamic Model Exchanges User-Defined

models Includes User-defined models (such as an exciter) comprising interconnected elementary control blocks User-defined connectivity between control blocks Various hybrid arrangements Goal Provide flexibility to completely specify a new model in a standard way Use well-known elementary control blocks 15 Ex: time delay, step function, log, sin, etc. EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models User-Defined Model Team - Status List of elementary control blocks List for IOP is complete Standard blocks defined to represent PTI PSSx BOSL, PowerFactory, EUROSTAG models Sufficient for application cases defined for IOP User Defined Model Reference Manual Detailed descriptions of how to model user defined models using standard control blocks

Standard interconnection of control blocks Block diagrams with equations, parameters This information will also be stored in sending/receiving applications Will begin soon 16 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models List of Elementary Control Blocks Basic Control Blocks CIM Name K 17 PTI PSS x BOSL PROP DIgSILENT EUROSTAG Usage Description K This Block outputs the product of the input times a constant stored in the block. The Constant gain factor K is a parameter stored in the block and may be any floating point value. X is the input of the block and Y is the output of the block. gain y = K *x Integrater1 INT

1/sT lim limited integrator Timelag1 DE1 1/(1+sT) simple lag Add flags to indicate whther max and min limits will be used. Limits will be parameters of the blocks. x1 is the value of the minimum limit. x2 is the value of the maximum limit. x2 should be always larger than x1. integrator with non-windup limits. first order time lag Timelag2 DE2 limited simple lag second order time lag. Non windup limits LeadLag PD dy / dt = x / T (1+sTa)/(1+s y = x * Gain * [ (1+s*T) / lead lag filter Tb) (1+s*T1) ] first order lead-lag with limits and gain

EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models CIM Modeling Team Lead: Kendall Demaree, Areva, CIM Model Manager for CIM User Group and IEC TC57 Members: 7 vendors and consultants Charter: Develop modeling approach to represent dynamic models and required signal connectivity in UML, building from existing CIM model 18 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models CIM Modeling Team - Status Standard and user-defined model interconnectivity model in UML completed as extension to CIM UML System parameters for standard models now being added to the CIM UML Most dynamic data is not currently represented in CIM, but goal is to reuse those properties that already exist Profiles for data exchange progressing well 19 To be tested with 4 application cases Static model with solved case defined and tested during

UCTE IOP in March 2009 Next is to add PDG for dynamic models EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models AC1 - Standard Model Example Example: Synchronous Generating Unit 20 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models AC2: User Defined Model Substitute for Standard Model Synchronous Generating Unit 21 DIgSILENT AC3 Standard Models, User Defined EPRI CIM for Interconnection Dynamic Models Hydro Power Plant Connection Diagram: pt3 pt2 pt1 0 2 1 qdv1 speed1 0 Block1 ElmPcu* qt1

Machine 1 ElmSym* 1 0 0 speed2 0 Block2 ElmPcu* 2 1 qdv2 Machine 2 ElmSym* 1 1 1 2 qt2 qdv3 0 2 3 2 Hydraulik

ElmPmu* 4 3 5 qt3 speed3 0 Block3 ElmPcu* 4 1 6 7 5 qt4 qdv4 Machine 3 ElmSym* 1 0 0 Machine 4 ElmSym* speed4 1 2

0 Block4 ElmPcu* 1 huw hedr pt4 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models App Case 4 - Complete User Defined Model 23 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Key Artifacts to be Produced 24 List and reference manual for standard dynamic models and control blocks for user-defined models Extensions to CIM UML information model to support dynamic case exchanges UML modeling approach to handle dynamic models with linkage to static load flow models Template for equipment suppliers to provide dynamic models New exchange profiles for the various exchanges Interoperability test results Presentation and handover to IEC TC57 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models

Milestone Schedule Description Date Solved Case Exchange (UCTE) IOP Training Lab Completed Exchange profile and test procedures for IOP Completed UCTE IOP Completed Dynamic Modeling 25 CIM UML with dynamics model extensions for review Complete List of standard models for IOP Complete List of standard control blocks Complete for IOP Sample model files for IOP software developers 4/15/2009 Standard Model Reference Manual Complete for IOP Dynamic model exchange profile 5/15/2009

User Defined Model Control Block Reference Manual 6/1/2009 Dynamic case for model exchange 6/1/2009 Dynamics IOP 7/14/2009 class NewDynamicsUserdefinedModel EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models static power sy stem model I dent ifiedObject Core:: PowerSystemResource 0..1 RotatingMachine Core:: ConductingEquipment Core::Equipment +ConductingEquipment Wires:: RegulatingCondEq Wires:: SynchronousM achine 1 Wires::EnergyConsumer +T erminals 0..* I dentifiedObject Plus other concrete

equipment ty pes ... Core::T erminal I dent ifiedObject instance dy namics model BlockConnectivity 0..* 1 Block - 0..* 0..* inServ ice: int 1 I dent ifiedObject 0..* 0..* BlockParameter + v alue: Float 0..* 1 1 meta dynamics model I dent ifiedObject BlockConnect able M etaBlockParameter +BlockParameter +MetaBlock 1

0..* 1 I dent ifiedObject blockKind: BlockKind internal: Boolean primitiv e: Boolean 1 +BlockParameterReference I dent ifiedObject I dent ifiedObject +MetaBlockParameter M etaBlock + + + 1 M etaBlockConnectivity 1 0..* M etaBlockRef erence 1Block + 0..* 0..* M etaBlockParameterRef erence 1 0..* 1 1 +BlockOutput

0..* I dent ifiedObject BlockConnect able 0..* M etaBlockInput M etaBlockOutput 0..* 0..* 0..* 0..1 0..1 0..* 1 metaBlockOutputReference 0..* 0..1 I dentifiedObject 1 1 metaBlockInputReference I dent ifiedObject M etaBlockInputRef erence 0..1 0..* M etaBlockSignal Links to standard meta dy namic model names could

be composed into BlockUsageParameter or BlockUsage object at UNCFACT message assembly lev el. I dentifiedObject M etaBlockOutputReference EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models class NewDynamicsStandardM odels I dent ifiedObject Core::BaseVoltage +BaseVoltage +ConductingEquipment I dentifiedObject Core:: PowerSystemResource Core::Equipment 0..1 0..* static power sy stem model Core:: ConductingEquipment +ConductingEquipment Wires:: RegulatingCondEq RotatingM achine 1 +T erminals 0..* IdentifiedObject Wires::EnergyConsumer Core::T erminal Wires:: SynchronousM achine

AsynchronousM achine Plus other concrete equipment ty pes ... standard dy namics model Loads:: AggregateLoad VoltageCompensator:: VoltageCompensator ExcitationSystems:: ExcitationSystem T urbineGovernors:: T urbineGovernor Loads:: M echanicalLoad Generators::GenSync M otors::M otorSync Generators::GenAsync M otors::M otorAsync Generator, Motor, Load, HVDC to be deriv ed from existing CIM classes EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models AC1 - Standard Model Example Example: Synchronous Generating Unit 28 EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models

Standard Model UML Structure 29 BlockConnectionUsage connectionType=SynGen BlockUsage excAC2A instance BlockUsage pssIEEE2B instance BlockUsage vcIEEE instance PowerSystemResource e.g. SynchronousMachine BlockUsage govHydro instance BlockUsage genSync instance BlockParameterUsage value = 0.01 Detail not shown BlockParameterUsage value = 0.96 BlockParameterUsage value = 250 Meta-dynamics model Reusable definitions ... Block name = vcIEEE blockKind = Voltage Compensation

Detail not shown Block name=pssIEEE2B blockKind = PSS Block name=excAC2A blockKind = Excitation System 30 Block name=govHydro blockKind = Governer-Turbine Block name=genSync blockKind = Generator BlockParameter name = Tr BlockInput name = Vcomp BlockParameter name = Xd BlockInput name = Efd BlockParameter name = Ka BlockInput Name = Vpss/Vref/Vst BlockParameter name = Xq BlockInput Name = Pm BlockParameter name = ...

BlockOutput name = Efd BlockParameter name = ... BlockOutput name = speed EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models EPRI CIM for Dynamic Models Next Steps IOP test for more complex user defined models Repository for dynamic model management Promote use of new dynamic model standards by manufacturers and software vendors