Empire and Expansion - Mr Dean's History Site

Empire and Expansion - Mr Dean's History Site

EMPIRE AND EXPANSION 1890-1909 Chapter 27 I. AMERICA TURNS OUTWARD Immediately following Civil War country more concerned with Reconstruction, industrialization By turn of century America began to look outward Competition with other nations in scramble for empire (Germany, Russia, Britain, Japan) This shift conflicted with American anticolonial traditions I. AMERICA TURNS OUTWARD

a. b. c. o United States had surplus of goods to sell- manufactured items, farm products Advances in transportation, communication quickened pace of commerce Belief in national superiority Belief in Social Darwinism Tradition of Manifest Destiny

Frontier had been seen as safety valve for discontent, expansion became way to get rid of these feelings All these ideas used to justify imperialism Alfred T. Mahan during 1890s urged American leaders to: Build up navy Acquire foreign bases for supplies, fuel Build the Panama Canal Idea that control of the sea was key to world dominance I. AMERICA TURNS OUTWARD Big Sister policy aligned Latin American nations with US into opening new markets 1899 first Pan American Conference 1880s- 1890s new American international aggression, showed

willingness of Americans to risk war and militaristic mood of Americans Issues with Germans over Pacific Islands Hostilities with Chile and Canada Issues with British resurfaced, British in no mood for war with US because of other issues, developed closer ties with Americans Cleveland invoked idea of Monroe Doctrine to keep European powers from interfering II. SPURNING THE HAWAIIAN PEAR 1820 first American missionaries come to Hawaii, want to win converts to Christianity and the American way Hawaii becomes center for sugar production, idea of

extension of America 1840s other countries warned to stay out of Hawaiis affairs 1887- Americans sign treaty guaranteeing access to naval base rights in Pearl Harbor, islands needed as a refueling/resupply for American shipping across the Pacific American sugar growers import Asian labor to work in sugar fields, outnumber native Hawaiians 1890s economic crisis-high tariff made sugar prices too high New queen took rights away from planters 1893 planters overthrow Queen Liliuokalani U.S. Marines help rebels Sanford Dole, leader of new government , asks U.S. to annex Hawaii, lower tariffs on sugar President Cleveland refused to sign agreement, apologized for American conduct 1897 California businessmen had close ties with planters Fear that Japanese would take over Hawaii Pressured President McKinley to annex Hawaii (1898)

III. CUBANS RISE IN REVOLT 1890s Spanish empire weak, small Included Cuba, Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico American businessmen invested ($50 m) in

sugarcane industry in Cuba, wanted stability Sugar industry backbone of Cuban industry, high tariffs threatened industry Cuban leader Jose Marti started war for independence, Spanish soldiers brutally put it down, place Cubans in concentration camps Americans favored Cubans fight for freedom, Spanish tactics gained sympathy Businessmen worried about economic interest and wanted rebellion to end ($100 million in trade) Journalists heightened dislike for Spanish Yellow Journalism heightened American jingoism President McKinley warns Spanish to establish peace, ordered battleship Maine to Havana harbor to protect American citizens III. CUBANS RISE IN REVOLT

Feb. 1898 Maine mysteriously blows up in Havana Harbor Final straw for Americans Newspapers inflame war fever McKinley does not want war, public and election concerns push him into it April 1898 Congress approves war and passes Teller Amendment that US would not annex Cuba once Spain was defeated US Navy blockades weaker Spanish in Santiago harbor Troops poorly trained, poor weapons, not prepared for tropical climate (equipped for fighting Indians on the Great Plains) Cavalry unit (Rough Riders) led by future President Theodore Roosevelt along with African American Calvary units took San Juan Hill Two days later Americans defeat Spanish navy Within weeks US controlled Puerto Rico as well December 1898 Treaty of Paris ends war

Disease(typhoid, dysentery, malaria) more deadly than Spanish bullets IV. WAR IN THE PHILIPPINES Assistant Sec. of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt orders Adm. George Dewey to sail to Philippines May 1898 American ships surprise Spanish navy in Manila Bay, destroy fleet Guerillas led by Emilio Aguinaldo help US defeat Spanish army August 1898 Spanish troops surrender to the United States

V. AMERICAS COURSE (CURSE) OF EMPIRE What to do with new empire? Treaty of Paris gave U.S. control of Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico U.S. paid $20 million for Philippines Philippines were biggest problem- ethnically diverse, but did not want islands to fall into hands of Germany, Japan, different culture, language and governmental institutions American duty to civilize inferior people Profits for American investors Questions of national identity- how would these new territories be assimilated into America (before all territorial acquisition eventually became states) Anti-Imperialistic League argued against expansion (cost, questioned consent of governed) Had many prominent members Mark Twain,

Andrew Carnegie, William Jennings Bryan among the leaders 1898- Treaty approved by Senate, America gains stature in the world VI. PERPLEXITIES IN CUBA AND PUERTO RICO Did Constitution follow flag? Did American laws apply to newly acquired possessions? Puerto Rico 1900 - Foraker Act. PR became an unincorporated territory. Citizens of PR, not of the US. Import duties on PR goods (made money for US off their work) 1901-1903 Insular Cases. Constitutional rights were not automatically extended to territorial possessions.

Congress had the power to decide these rights. Import duties laid down by the Foraker Act were legal 1917 Jones Act. Gave full territorial status to PR. Removed tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US. PRs elected their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws. PRs could NOT vote in US presidential elections. A resident commissioner was sent to Washington to vote for PR in the House. VI. PERPLEXITIES IN CUBA AND PUERTO RICO US improved finance, education, government and public health in Cuba Wiped out yellow fever US withdrew form Cuba 1902; to keep Cuba in sphere of US influence they included Platt Amendment in their constitution Platt Amendment (1903) a) Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with

foreign powers that would endanger its independence. b) The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs if necessary to maintain an efficient, independent govt. c) Cuba must lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for naval and coaling station. d) Cuba must not build up an excessive public debt. VII. LITTLE BROWN BROTHERS IN THE PHILIPPINES Aguinaldo thought the U.S. was an ally and Philippines would become independent U.S. decided to keep Philippines Aguinaldo organized insurrection, relied on guerilla warfare American military used extraordinary measures to put down insurrection Put Filipino citizens in concentration camps

Spring 1901 captured Aguinaldo Insurrection did not end, but lowered the morale of guerillas 5,000 Americans and 200,000 Filipinos died $400 million spent fighting in Philippines 1901 William Howard Taft governor, censors press, jails insurgents Extended limited self rule, ordered construction of roads, schools, attempt to assimilate and civilize Filipinos 1916 Congress passes Jones Act allows for Philippine independence 1946 achieve independence VII. HINGING IN THE OPEN DOOR IN CHINA By 1899 European (Britain, Germany, France , Russia) countries divided China into spheres of influence

In each zone the countries had exclusive access to ports and markets Japan expanded regional influence into China, Korea U.S. trade limited in China Feared tariff barriers 1899 US Sec. of State John Hay dispatches Open Door note Did not want colonies, just free trade and equal access Wants other countries to respect Chinese rights and open economic competition VII. HINGING IN THE OPEN DOOR IN CHINA Chinese criticized Western culture and influence May 1900 Chinese antiimperialist secret societyBoxers took over foreign

diplomat district in Beijing to expel foreign powers Multinational force (Japanese, European, American) forces put down Boxer Rebellion After rebellion European powers mistreated rebels, ordered Chinese government to pay for damages VIII. ELECTION OF 1900 AND THE RISE OF TR Military victory and economic prosperity led McKinley to reelection against William Jennings Bryan VP was war hero Teddy Roosevelt 1901 McKinley assassinated by anarchist in Buffalo, NY; Roosevelt

becomes youngest president (42) Roosevelt supported aggressive American posture in international affairs He wanted to lead boldly, felt president could take any action in the public interest not specifically forbidden by the Constitution IX. BUILDING THE PANAMA CANAL America looked to isthmus of Panama to build a canal to protect naval superiority, make easier defense of newly acquired possessions in the Caribbean and Pacific Legal obstacles Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (could not secure exclusive control over region to build canal) Took care of problem with Hay-Pauncefote Treaty Late 1800s French company started building canal

1903 U.S. purchased French claim $40 m Needed consent of Columbian government to build canal, U.S. did not want to pay their price U.S. secretly supported independence movement in Panama, sent warships to region Panama granted independence and gives U.S. control over canal zone Justified for purposes of national defense 35,000 workers used to build canal-5,000 died Opened in 1914 Cut 8,000 miles from ocean trip around North and South America X. BIG STICK DIPLOMACY U.S policy towards Latin America depended on strong military U.S. saw this as moral obligation Elite and Industry needed to accept challenge

of international leadership Latin American countries could not pay debts to European countries 1904- Roosevelt issues Roosevelt Corollary U.S would assume police power over countries in Latin America in cases of chronic wrongdoing, instead of European powers Reasserted Monroe Doctrine keeping Western Hemisphere free of European intervention Turned Caribbean into Yankee Lake Latin American countries thought it was a way to control region through shield of protection, affected relations for decades XI. ROOSEVELT ON THE WORLD STAGE Roosevelt charged onto the world stage with the Russo-Japanese War (1904)

Japan wanted to extend their influence, did not approve of Europeans actions Did not like Russian troops in Manchuria 1904 Japan destroys Russian fleet, Russian troops Beginning of Russo- Japanese War Roosevelt wanted to keep balance of power, Japan saw war eventually not going their way and asked US for help, called peace conference Portsmouth, New Hampshire (1905) Neither Japan or Russia felt satisfied, beginning of US/Japan rivalry in East Asia Roosevelt won Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in Manchuria and North Africa XII. JAPANESE LABOR IN CALIFORNIA

Because of war many Japanese immigrants came to California Many Californians were upset at yellow peril 1906 San Francisco school board ordered segregation of schools to make room for white students Incident caused international crisis, inflamed by press 1908- Roosevelt forces Gentlemen's Agreement with Japan A Japanese note agreeing to deny passports to laborers entering the U.S. Japan recognized the U.S. right to exclude Japanese immigrants holding passports issued by other countries. The U.S. government got the school board of San Francisco to rescind their order to segregate Asians in separate schools 1908- Root-Takaharia agreement both powers

respect the others right to open door in China XIII. THE GREAT WHITE FLEET 1907-1909 - To impress other world powers Roosevelt sends entire battle fleet around the world AMERICA AS A PACIFIC POWER TAFT AND DOLLAR DIPLOMACY 1908- William Howard Taft succeeded Roosevelt as president Foreign policy was to maintain open door policy in Asia, expand American trade, keep stability in Latin America Substitute dollars for bullets, foreign

diplomacy was what was best for American economic interests Increase American investment in Latin America Provide money for Latin American governments Had to put money into Honduras and Haiti to keep out foreign funds Used armed forces in Dominican Republic, Cuba and Honduras to protect American investments 1913- sent Marines to Nicaragua to protect investments, stayed until 1925 WILSON AND MORAL DIPLOMACY 1912 Woodrow Wilson, president, change course of foreign policy Promote independent government in

Latin America, not American control, condemned colonialism Called moral diplomacy, US conscience of the world Did use U.S. military- Haiti (1915) protect American investments, stayed for 17 years Used soldiers in Dominican Republic, Mexico 1917 signed Jones Act that gave Philippines territorial status and promised independence (achieved 1945) MORALISTIC DIPLOMACY IN MEXICO

Mexico wide gap between wealthy and poor, most were poor Late 1800s American investment in Mexico expanded 1910 revolution in Mexico 1913 military dictator executed new president, assumed power (General

Huerta) Wilson did not recognize government Chaos accelerated Mexican immigration to US, formation of Mexican American borderland culture Chaos threat to American investment US favored Carranza, sent arms for support U.S. Marines and warships sent to Veracruz, Mexico MORALISTIC DIPLOMACY IN MEXICO U.S. Marines and warships sent to Veracruz, Mexico American sailors arrested in Mexico, excuse needed to occupy Veracruz All sides in Mexico resented Americans, caused downfall of Huerta, Carranza new president

Period of revolution saw rise of bandit gangs across Mexico Pancho Villa attacks and kills Americans 1916- Wilson sent 11,000 troops under Gen. John J. Pershing to find Villa 1917- return to US because of WW I World War I test of new American global strength Mexico incident proving ground for new weapons used in WWI

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