Elements of Design - California University of Pennsylvania
Elements of Design TED 105 Fall 2012 Design elements are the basic units of a painting, drawing, design or other visual piece and include: Line Shape Form
Color Texture Space Line A fundamental mark Decoration or stroke used in
drawing in which the length is longer than the width. Uses for lines in design This image contains contour lines (the outline of the birds) and decoration lines (hatching).
Contour Line Divide Space Shape A shape is defined as an area that stands out from the space next to or around it due to a defined or implied boundary, or because of differences of value, color, or texture. All objects are composed of shapes and all other
'Elements of Design' are shapes in some way. General Categories of Shapes Mechanical Shapes (Geometric Shapes): These are the shapes that can be drawn using a ruler or compass. Mechanical shapes, whether simple or complex, produce a feeling of control or order. Organic Shapes: Freehand drawn shapes that
are complex and normally found in nature. Organic shapes produce a natural feel. Form Form is any three dimensional object. Form can be measured, from top to bottom (height), side to side (width), and from back to front (depth). Form is also defined by light and dark.
There are two types of form, geometric (man-made) natural (organic form) Form may be created by the combining of two or more shapes. It may be enhanced by tone, texture and color. It can be illustrated or constructed.
Form Follows Function Originally a principle associated with modern architecture and industrial design in the 20th century, the concept is now used more widely as an exhortation to base the form on the required functional use, and avoid ornamentation.
Color Color can play a large role in the elements of design with the color wheel being used as a tool, and color theory providing a body of
practical guidance to color mixing and the visual impacts of specific color combination. Types of color Primary Color Tertiary Color Secondary
Color Perceptual attributes of color Hue Value Saturation Texture Meaning the way a surface feels or is
perceived to feel. Texture can be added to attract or repel interest to an element, depending on the pleasantness of the texture. [ Types of texture Tactile texture Visual texture Space
In design, space is concerned with the area the design will take place on. For a twodimensional design space concerns creating the illusion of a third dimension on a flat surface. Major Methods of Controlling the Illusion of Space Overlap: Where objects appear to be on top
of each other. This illusion makes the top element look closer to the observer. There is no way to determine the depth of the space, only the order of closeness. Shading: Adding gradation marks to make an object of a two-dimensional surface seem three-dimensional. Principles of Design Principles applied to the elements of design
that bring them together into one design. How one applies these principles determines how successful a design may be. Principles of Design Balance Balance Symmetrical
Asymmetrical Radial Overall Proximity & Unity Proximity Unity Alignment Alignment brings order to chaos.
Have you used a grid? Is there a common alignment -- top, bottom, left, right, or centered If certain elements are out of alignment, was it done purposefully with a specific design goal in mind? Repetition & Consistency Using design elements over
again Keeping design elements consistent Similarity & Contrast Similarity: Keep it simple and uncluttered Manipulate shapes Develop a style and stick with format
Contrast Space Position Form Direction Structure Density
Size Gravity Color Texture Golden Rectangle At least since the Renaissance, many artists
and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio, especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio, believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_elements
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