# Electromagnetic Spectrum

Electromagnetic Radiation & Satellites Antenna Design Pete Arvedson California Science Conference October 26, 2013 Hosted by Satellite Educators Association Lesson plan development supported by a grant from NOAA-CREST West Session Objectives Relate wavelength and frequency Construct 1/10th scale model wave Calculate antenna length Apply to 5-element Yagi antenna design Build 1/10th scale antenna

Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 2 Solar radiation reaches Earth surface Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 3

Surface features reflect solar radiation to remote sensors Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 4

Satellite sends radio signal from remote sensors to Earth station Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 5 Wave Properties

wavelength, (meters)meters) amplitude crest trough How many waves pass a point each second = frequency, Satellite Educators Association (meters)1/sec or Hertz)sec or Hertz)) California Science Conference 2013

Antenna Design - 6 Electromagnetic Spectrum Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 7 Wave Properties c c =

=c/ =c/ c = speed of light = 299,792,458 m/sec or Hertz)s -in vacuum ~ 300 x 106 m/sec or Hertz)s -in metal = 280.225 x 106 m/sec or Hertz)s Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 8 Wavelength from Frequency POES WEFAX frequency = 137.50 MHz) =c/ 6

300 x 10 m/s 2.18 m = 6 137.5 x 10 Hz Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 9 Build Wave Model: 1/10 Scale wavelength: = 2.18 m

/sec or Hertz)10 scale model wave: = 21.8 cm 1 Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 10 Antenna Size First Look EMR energy resonates in antenna metal wire producing current Antenna length should match radio signal wavelength Wavelength for 137.5MHz = 2.18 m

or wavelength is best! 2.18 / 2 = 1.09 m Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 11 Antenna Size - Actual velocityin vacuum 300 x 106 m/s 2.182 6 frequency 137.5 x 10 Hz

m velocity in metal 280.225 x 106 m/s 2.038 6 frequency 137.5 x 10 Hz m wavelength = 1.019 m 1

/10 scale model antenna length = Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 10.19 cm Antenna Design - 12 Yagi Antenna 1926 Hidetsugu Yagi & Sintaro Uda Tohoku Imperial University, Japan Driven element; parasitic directors & reflector Highly directional & wavelength selective

Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 13 Brent Stirton, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 14 Design Your Antenna

3.0 cm 87.4 cm 8.74 cm 92.0 cm 9.20 cm 96.8 cm 9.68 cm 18.3 cm 10.19 cm 4.1 cm

112.1 cm 11.21 cm Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 15 Extension Build scale models other antenna types Calculate antenna length for 1693 MHz Build several real antennas & determine which is best for satellite reception Compare/Contrast crossed Yagi with QHA

Build chicken wire parabolic reflector Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 16 CA Science Standards Grades 9-12: Physics 4. Waves have characteristic properties that do not depend on the type of wave (a, c, e) 5. Electric and magnetic phenomena are related and have many practical applications (e, f, h) Grades 9-12: I & E

1. Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations (a, d, g) Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 17 Contact Information Pete Arvedson - [email protected] Check out lesson plans in Satellite Educators Association (SEA) monthly Newsletter http:/sec or Hertz)/sec or Hertz)www.SatEd.org More opportunities to involve students doing research:

SEAs M.Y. S.P.A.C.E.* Program - an international high school collaborative environmental research program using satellite-based data http:/sec or Hertz)/sec or Hertz)www.calstatela.edu/sec or Hertz)programs/sec or Hertz)crest/sec or Hertz) * (Multinational Youth Studying Practical Applications of Climatic Events) Satellite Educators Association California Science Conference 2013 Antenna Design - 18

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