Electophilic Aromatic Substituion - Ellis Benjamin
16. Chemistry of Benzene: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Substitution Reactions of Benzene and Its Derivatives Benzene is aromatic: a cyclic conjugated
compound with 6 electrons Reactions of benzene lead to the retention of the aromatic core Electrophilic aromatic substitution replaces a proton on benzene with another electrophile E
H H H + H
H H E+ H
H + H H
H H+ Bromination of Aromatic Rings Benzenes electrons participate as a Lewis base in reactions with Lewis acids
The product is formed by loss of a proton, which is replaced by bromine FeBr3 is added as a catalyst to polarize the bromine reagent Br +
Br2 FeBr 3 +
HBr Addition Intermediate in Bromination The addition of bromine occurs in two steps In the first step the electrons act as a nucleophile toward Br2 (in a complex with FeBr3)
This forms a cationic addition intermediate from benzene and a bromine cation The intermediate is not aromatic and therefore high in energy (see Figure 16.2) Formation of Product from Intermediate The cationic addition
intermediate transfers a proton to FeBr4- (from Brand FeBr3) This restores aromaticity (in contrast with addition in alkenes) Aromatic Chlorination and Iodination
Chlorine and iodine (but not fluorine, which is too reactive) can produce aromatic substitution with the addition of other reagents to promote the reaction Chlorination requires FeCl3 Iodine must be oxidized to form a more powerful I+ species (with Cu+ or peroxide)
Aromatic Nitration The combination of nitric acid and sulfuric acid produces NO2+ (nitronium ion) The reaction with benzene produces nitrobenzene Aromatic Sulfonation
Substitution of H by SO3 (sulfonation) Reaction with a mixture of sulfuric acid and SO3 Reactive species is sulfur trioxide or its conjugate acid
Reaction occurs via Wheland intermediate and is reversible Alkali Fusion of Aromatic Sulfonic Acids Sulfonic acids are useful as intermediates Heating with NaOH at 300 C followed by
neutralization with acid replaces the SO3H group with an OH Example is the synthesis of p-cresol Alkylation of Aromatic Rings: The Friedel Crafts Reaction Aromatic substitution of
a R+ for H Aluminum chloride promotes the formation of the carbocation Wheland intermediate forms
Limitations of the Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Only alkyl halides can be used (F, Cl, I, Br) Aryl halides and vinylic halides do not react (their carbocations are too hard to form) Will not work with rings containing an amino group substituent or a strongly electron-withdrawing group
Control Problems Multiple alkylations can occur because the first alkylation is activating Carbocation Rearrangements During Alkylation
Similar to those that occur during electrophilic additions to alkenes Can involve H or alkyl shifts Carbocation Rearrangements During Alkylation
17 Acylation of Aromatic Rings Reaction of an acid chloride (RCOCl) and an aromatic ring in the presence of AlCl3 introduces acyl group, COR Benzene with acetyl chloride yields acetophenone
Mechanism of Friedel-Crafts Acylation Similar to alkylation Reactive electrophile: resonance-stabilized acyl cation An acyl cation does not rearrange
Substituent Effects in Aromatic Rings Substituents can cause a compound to be (much) more or (much) less reactive than benzene Substituents affect the orientation of the reaction the positional relationship is controlled ortho- and para-directing activators, ortho- and para-directing deactivators, and meta-directing deactivators
Summary Table: Effect of Substituents in Aromatic Substitution Origins of Substituent Effects An interplay of inductive effects and resonance effects
Inductive effect - withdrawal or donation of electrons through a bond Resonance effect - withdrawal or donation of electrons through a bond due to the overlap of a p orbital on the substituent with a p orbital on the aromatic ring
Inductive Effects Controlled by electronegativity and the polarity of bonds in functional groups Halogens, C=O, CN, and NO2 withdraw electrons through bond connected to ring Alkyl groups donate electrons
Resonance Effects Electron Withdrawal C=O, CN, NO2 substituents withdraw electrons from the aromatic ring by resonance electrons flow from the rings to the substituents
Resonance Effects Electron Donation Halogen, OH, alkoxyl (OR), and amino substituents donate electrons electrons flow from the substituents to the ring Effect is greatest at ortho and para An Explanation of Substituent Effects
Activating groups donate electrons to the ring, stabilizing the Wheland intermediate (carbocation)
Deactivating groups withdraw electrons from the ring, destabilizing the Wheland intermediate
Ortho- and Para-Directing Activators: Alkyl Groups Alkyl groups activate: direct further substitution to positions ortho and para to themselves Alkyl group is most effective in the ortho and para positions Ortho- and Para-Directing
Activators: OH and NH2 Alkoxyl, and amino groups have a strong, electrondonating resonance effect Most pronounced at the ortho and para positions Ortho- and Para-Directing Deactivators: Halogens Electron-withdrawing inductive effect outweighs
weaker electron-donating resonance effect Resonance effect is only at the ortho and para positions, stabilizing carbocation intermediate Meta-Directing Deactivators Inductive and resonance effects reinforce each other Ortho and para intermediates destabilized by
deactivation from carbocation intermediate Resonance cannot produce stabilization Trisubstituted Benzenes: Additivity of Effects If the directing effects of the two groups are the same, the result is additive
Substituents with Opposite Effects If the directing effects of two groups oppose each other, the more powerful activating group decides the principal outcome Often gives mixtures of products
Meta-Disubstituted Compounds Are Unreactive The reaction site is too hindered To make aromatic rings with three adjacent substituents, it is best to start with an ortho-disubstituted compound
Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Aryl halides with electron-withdrawing substituents ortho and para react with nucleophiles Form addition
intermediate (Meisenheimer complex) that is stabilized by electron-withdrawal Halide ion is lost to give aromatic ring
Benzyne Phenol is prepared on an industrial scale by treatment of chlorobenzene with dilute aqueous NaOH at 340C under high pressure The reaction involves an elimination reaction that gives a triple bond The intermediate is called benzyne
Evidence for Benzyne as an Intermediate Bromobenzene with 14C only at C1 gives substitution product with label scrambled between C1 and C2 Reaction proceeds through a symmetrical intermediate in which C1 and C2 are equivalent must be benzyne
Structure of Benzyne Benzyne is a highly distorted alkyne The triple bond uses sp2-hybridized carbons, not the usual sp The triple bond has one bond formed by pp overlap and by weak sp2sp2 overlap
Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds Alkyl side chains can be oxidized to CO2H by strong reagents such as KMnO4 and Na2Cr2O7 if they have a C-H next to the ring Converts an alkylbenzene into a benzoic acid, ArR ArCO2H
Bromination of Alkylbenzene Side Chains Reaction of an alkylbenzene with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and benzoyl peroxide (radical initiator) introduces Br into the side chain Mechanism of NBS (Radical)
Reaction Abstraction of a benzylic hydrogen atom generates an intermediate benzylic radical Reacts with Br2 to yield product Br radical cycles back into reaction to carry chain Br2 produced from reaction of HBr with NBS
Reduction of Aromatic Compounds Aromatic rings are inert to catalytic hydrogenation under conditions that reduce alkene double bonds Can selectively reduce an alkene double bond in the presence of an aromatic ring Reduction of an aromatic ring requires more powerful reducing conditions (high pressure or rhodium
catalysts) Reduction of Aryl Alkyl Ketones Aromatic ring activates neighboring carbonyl group toward reduction Ketone is converted into an alkylbenzene by catalytic hydrogenation over Pd catalyst
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