Effective Classroom Management in the English Language Classroom
From the Text to the Best: Adapting and Expanding Textbooks for Greater Cultural Relevance and Communicative Language Teaching B Y : A M Y E . L I N G E N F E LT E R ENGLISH LANGUAGE FELLOW 2013-14 About Teaching: You can lead a horse to water, but you cant force him to drink Old English adage How does this adage apply to teaching?
Why would a horse die of thirst? About Teaching: The wind blows the dandelions throughout the field, and some seeds stick and grow into flowers. Other seeds do not. Note: one seed that sticks and grows into a flower is better than none at all! About Teaching: My students! Thats the only reason that I am working. I am working for them because I want them to improve. I want them to learn.
Recent GO TEACHER participant Could you add to and improve this statement? There are people who teach to live, and those who live to teach. Which are you? Do you have heart? About Teaching: We dont get pleasure from other peoples pleasure IF were suffering while helping others. You make others happy when youre happy. We must enjoy what were teaching and make it meaningful to both ourselves and to our students. If you TEACH FOR YOURSELF, FOR THE MOMENT AND THE JOY OF IT, the
rest will follow! Remember: teaching is a 50/50 effort! Teaching/Classroom Challenges: Limited time Limited resources Lack of technology Textbooks are boring Curriculum is not relevant to Ecuadorian students real, everyday lives Lack of respect from school
administration and other forces in charge Teaching/Classroom Challenges: Lack of respect from society, parents, even students Student behavior problems Excessively large class sizes that make Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) difficult Its so easy to take the easy way out! How do we save time and money, and still deliver the best lessons possible? Cultural Bias: Which object
doesnt belong with the others? Cultural Bias: Which is the best answer to the following question? Log: Ax: CATEGORICAL/ABSTRACT/ LOGICAL FOCUS (This doesnt belong in the abstract category of tools as we categorize and define them in our culture and language) PHYSICAL MATERIALS FOCUS
(This is the only object that doesnt contain the material wood) Saw: Hammer: EMOTIONAL FOCUS (Example: the person has a negative emotional memory of getting hurt by a saw as a child) UTILITY/CONCRETE FOCUS (You cant use this object with the other three; the
other two objects can be used to cut the log; a Cultural Bias: Which is the best answer to the following question? 1. Tall is to short as: a. Orange is to blue b. Black is to white c. Green is to white d. Neon yellow is to gray Cultural Bias: Which is the best answer to the following question? a. Orange is to blue: b. Black is to white: c. Green is to white:
d. Neon yellow is to gray: Challenges with Some Textbooks: Culturally biased, too gringo, and topics are irrelevant to students real needs and lives in Ecuador Layout is overwhelming, poorly organized, and/or boring to the eye Not enough practice or independent activities Not student-centered Not enough focus on oral communication/conversation skills Challenges with Some Textbooks: Too much emphasis on grammar,
reading, and writing Not enough supporting visuals to contextualize what its teaching Things to Consider when Using Materials Somebody Else Made: How can I make this more practical, meaningful, and relevant to my students actual, everyday lives in Ecuador? Can they relate? Who made these materials? Are they culturally biased? Do students have prior background knowledge (content/skills) to understand and complete these tasks successfully?
Things to Consider when Using Materials Somebody Else Made: Does it allow for pair/group work? Does it maximize student speaking time and keep them talking? Does it involve and keep engaged the maximum amount of students possible? Does it involve speaking and writing practice of grammar? A picture tells 1000 words: are there
are enough supporting visuals? Things to Consider when Using Materials Somebody Else Made: Does it give students a choice and some learning independence? IF there is cultural bias, can you also use that as an opportunity to teach about English-speaking CULTURES? For example, for Unit 2, pg. 18 Your Daily Routine: compare/contrast the North American breakfast with the typical Ecuadorian breakfast
Things to Consider when Using Materials Somebody Else Made: Use pre-made, or draw on the board, graphic organizers whenever you can For example: http ://peopleleap.com/resources/document s / > Writing Skills/Assignments > Comparing-Contrasting T-Chart Template Gestures and body language also go a
Example of Compare/Contrast Graphic Organizer: COMPARING AND CONTRASTING TWO THINGS ITEM A: ITEM B: Item A Only Item B Only Both A and B (Differences) (Differences) (Similarities) Typical American Typical Ecuadorian What Both Have Breakfast Breakfast in Common Cereal with milk and/or fruit Pancakes or Waffles Eggs
Bacon Oatmeal with milk Bread with butter Rice Chicken broth Ham and cheese sandwich Bread and butter Coffee Juice Ponche Oats with milk
Oats with milk Juice Coffee Bread and butter Content vs. Skills in English: Content vs. Skills in English: CONTENT/KNOWLEDGE SKILLS THE INFORMATION YOU ARE TEACHING (KNOWLEDGE AND FACTS) The WHAT DEFINING things and terms
Background knowledge of the topic students are reading and writing about (e.g. Mother Theresa) ________________________________ Cultural knowledge and awareness of English-speaking countries Knowledge of English, including: o Grammar rules o Meanings and correct uses of vocabulary words, transition words, expressions, idioms, etc. o Labeling the components of THE ABILITIES, METHODS,
APPROACHES, AND STRATEGIES YOU ARE TEACHING The HOW (to apply your knowledge) ________________________________ Writing skills o How to organize an essay/paragraph o How to write an introduction, paragraph, and conclusion o How to write a topic and concluding sentence o How to use vocabulary in context of a sentence o How to apply the grammar rules in a sentence o How and when to use
informal and formal language in writing Content vs. Skills in English: CONTENT/ KNOWLEDGE THE INFORMATION YOU ARE TEACHING (KNOWLEDGE AND FACTS) Teaching WHAT and DEFINING things Background knowledge of the topic students are reading and writing about (e.g. Mother Theresa) ________________________________ Knowledge of English, including:
o History of English and etymology o Linguistics o Physical structure of mouth/ throat during pronunciation o Definition of skimming and scanning SKILLS THE ABILITIES, METHODS, APPROACHES, AND STRATEGIES YOU ARE TEACHING Teaching HOW to DO something and APPLY your knowledge ________________________________ Reading skills o Skimming/Scanning o How to guess unknown
vocabulary in context o Predicting and using background knowledge Speaking skills o Group speaking strategies o Pronunciation and intonation strategies o How to use words and phrases in a conversation in the right context Example Lesson: Postcards Book 1B 2nd Edition, Unit 6, pg. 54 Grammar Focus: Teaching Simple Past Whats missing from the blue Grammar Focus box? What may confuse students about the Practicing Grammar section that
wasnt covered right before? Is there cultural bias in the photos on this page? (Think of your students) Are there enough visuals provided? What should I write on the board or copy thats already in the book? Example Lesson: Postcards Book 1B 2nd Edition, Unit 6, pg. 54 Grammar Focus: Teaching Simple Past Are there enough opportunities for students to work collaboratively and practice their communication (speaking and listening) skills? What do I need to pre-teach? What background knowledge do students need to understand this? What do I need to do to alleviate and
clarify these issues? Possible Ways to Supplement and Expand on the Activity: Adding pronoun and indirect object it to the box and giving several examples of what it represents (e.g. days of the week) and provide example sentences Pre-teach there is/are/was/were Pre-teach or do a vocabulary lesson on professional roles/labels/titles Pre-teach or do a vocabulary lesson on personality adjectives Possible Ways to Supplement and Expand on the Activity: Expand on people in pictures and recreate the activity using famous people
in the past known to Ecuadorian students Make it more fun! Do a guessing game both with famous people and the students in the class Make the connection between present simple and past simple of be (current famous people and past who are now dead). Example Mini-Lesson: Personality Adjectives English Adjective Friendly Talkative Quiet/Calm Shy/Timid Realistic
Practical Traditional Decisive Organized Responsibl e Honest Goodlooking Logical Compassion ate Kind Spanish Translation Amigable/ Amistoso Locuaz
Silencioso/ Tranquilo Tmido Realista Practico Tradicional Decidida Ordenado Responsable Honesto Guapo/a Lgico Compasivo Amable/ Bondadoso English Adjective
Descuidada/ Example Mini-Lesson: Personality Adjectives English Adjective Friendly Talkative Quiet/Calm Shy/Timid Realistic Practical Traditional Decisive Organized Responsible Honest Good-looking
Logical Compassiona te Kind Serious Cautious Brave Guess the Face/Drawing: English Adjective Imaginative Creative Athletic Adaptable Disorganized
Go-with-theflow Carefree Intuitive Funny Sensitive Hard-working Spontaneous Intelligent/ Smart Cooperative Independent Confident Clumsy Guess the Face/Drawing: Is it EVER OK to Translate?
ANSWER: Usually not, unless there are no other alternatives and it would be extremely time-consuming to explain in English It should be used as a last resort after attempting other ways to explain it! Alternatives: Think about how you learned your first language: contextualized!! Contextualize a word or grammar point and give it MEANING Is it EVER OK to Translate? For example: To teach the word compassionate do the following to contextualize the word: Give synonyms in English (kind, tender, sympathetic, understanding)
Give antonyms (cruel, unkind, heartless) Use in a sentence/s Give examples of what a person does when they are being compassionate Show pictures or photos!! Is it EVER OK to Translate? Have students draw a picture Teacher or students act out facial expressions Yes, there are times when it saves time, but is the end result worth it? Will students retain the information? Age, level, educational attainment, and learning preferences are a factor (they can justify native language use at times)
Example Mini-Lesson: Personality Adjectives BE AWARE OF FALSE COGNATES, for example: Realize vs. realizar Estoy embarazada vs. Im embarrassed Actualmente vs. Actually Use graphic organizers for vocabulary Website Resources: http ://peopleleap.com/resources/documen ts / > Reading Skills/Vocabulary Example Mini-Lesson: Personality Adjectives Definition/s: (Include part of speech and two complete definitions from the dictionary) 1) 2)
Part/s of Speech Synonym Draw a Picture: Word Antonym Write the word seven times: Use the word in 2 sentences: 1) 1)
2) 3) 4) 2) 5) 6) 7) Example Mini-Lesson: Personality Adjectives VOCABULARY WORKSHEET Vocabulary Word / Phrase Word Type / I mage
Definition / Meaning / Synonym 1. The sentence from the text goes here 2. Your own sentence goes here 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2.
Example Mini-Lesson: Descriptive Personality Adjectives 1. I am (adjective) because I ________. Example: I am cautious because I think before I do things. OR . . . 2. (Person/name) is (adjective) because he/she _________. Example: My mother is friendly because she talks to everybody. Example Mini-Lesson: Descriptive Personality Adjectives 3. My ideal (best friend / significant other) is (adjective) because ________. Example: My ideal husband is
organized because I dont like extra work in the house. Adj ective Clauses: Describing a Person Using Who USI NG AN ADJ ECTI VE (e.g. introverted): 1. I am a person. 2. I am introverted. 1.+ 2. = I am a person who is introver ted. Combine the two sentences to f orm an adj ective clause that describes me: I am a person + who is introverted (3rd person). = I am a person who is introverted. (Main clause) + (dependent clause) USI NG AN ADJ ECTI VE I N NEGATI VE FORM (e.g. not expressive): 1. Mary is a woman. 2. Mary is not/ isnt expressive.
1.+ 2.= Mary is a woman who isnt expressive. Combine the two sentences to f orm an adj ective clause that describes Mary: Mary is a woman + who isnt expressive. = Mary is a woman who isnt expressive. (Main clause) + (dependent clause) USI NG A VERB (e.g. work): 1. J ohn is a man. 2. J ohn works. 1.+ 2. = J ohn is a man who works. Combine the two sentences f or f orm an adj ect ive clause that describes J ohn: J ohn is a man + who works. = J ohn is a man who works. (Main clause) +(dependent clause)
USI NG A VERB I N NEGATI VE FORM (e.g. dance): 1. I am a person. 2. I dont dance well. 1.+ 2. = I am a person who doesnt dance well. Combine the two sentences f or f orm an adj ect ive clause that describes me: I am a person + who doesnt dance well (3rd person). = I am a person who doesnt (Main clause) + (dependent clause) dance well. Using the Myers Briggs Type I ndicator (MBTI ) Combine the following pairs of sentences to form a full sentence with an adjective clause that describes you or your ideal friend/ significant other:
My MBTI Type: (Amys Type: ENFP) 1. I am a woman. 2. I am idealistic. (N- I ntuition) 3. 1. 2. 3. I am a woman. I am talkative. (E- Extraversion) My I deal Friends MBTI Type: (I NTP) 1. 2. 3.
I am looking f or a good f riend. This f riend is logical. (T- Thinking) 1. 2. 3. I am looking f or a good f riend. This f riend is introspective. (I - I ntrovert) Mingling/ Speed- Meeting Activity I nitial Statement: I am looking f or [someone/ a f riend/ a boyf riend/ a girlf riend/ a husband/ a wif e] who +is +adj ective... OR I am looking f or [someone/ a f riend/ a boyf riend/ a girlf riend/ a husband/ a wif e] who +verb...
For example: I am looking f or a girlf riend who is flexible. Response: Good/ great, because I am a person who... OR I m sorry, I am not a person who... For example: Great, because I am a person who likes meeting new people! ARE YOU WHO I M LOOKI NG FOR? Your Date/Companions Name Compatibility (YES!)
No compatibility (NO!) (Check X every time the person IS who youre looking for, based on his/her answers) (Check X every time the person is NOT who youre looking for, based on his/her answers) Example Mini-Lesson: Profession Nouns Profession/Job Profession/Job Singer /
Musician Newscaster Bodybuilder President / Politician Football/Soccer Player Example Mini-Lesson: Profession Nouns Profession/Job Profession/Job
Liberator/ General Doctor Artist Football/Soccer Player Nun Actors Example Mini-Lesson: Professions 1. I want to be a (profession) when I grow up because I like ________. Example: I want to be a doctor
because I like to help people. OR . . . 2. (Person/name) wants to be a (profession) because he/she likes ________. Example: My brother wants to be a singer because he likes to sing. Famous People of Now: Guess Who? Famous People: Guess Who? Reviewing Simple Present of Be PRESENT: 1. This person is an talented singer. 2. This person is a serious bodybuilder. 3. This person is an athletic soccer/ football player.
4. This person is a talkative newscaster. 5. This person is an intelligent politician. 6. This person is a good-looking Example Mini-Lesson: Professions PRESENT: Juan Fernando Velasco Alexandra Escobar Antonio Valencia Tania Tinoco Rafeal Vicente Correa Delgado Gerardo Morn Famous People of Past: Guess Who? Famous People: Guess Who? Reviewing Simple Past of Be
PAST: 1. This person was a brave general. 2. This person was a creative artist. 3. These people were hardworking football/soccer players. 4. This person was an independent female doctor. 5. This person was a compassionate nun. 6. This person was a funny actor. 7. These people werent imaginative artists. Example Mini-Lesson: Famous People PAST: Simn Bolvar Oswaldo Guayasamin Chucho Benitez Matilde Hidalgo de Prcel Mother Theresa
Ernesto Alban Gomez Don Evaristo Past Simple Be: Singular & Plural PAST: 1. Simon Bolivar ______ a general. 2. Simon Bolivar and his lover, Manuel Saenz, ______ liberators for Latin America. 3. Mother Theresa ______ an artist. 4. Antonio Valencia and Chucho Benitez ______ women. 5. Matilde Hidalgo de Prcel ______ the first female doctor in Ecuador. But Theres No Time, Technology, or Resources to Supplement! Some suggestions: You dont have to reinvent the wheel!
Use resources that others have made Make students create and copy the images/graphic organizers themselves (the students should be doing most of the work!) Simply writing the language on the board, having students both write it first and then speak it second, saves preparation time But Theres No Time, Technology, or Resources to Supplement! Use chart paper to create materials on the spot that can be re-used and copied Act things out, use gestures, body language, and contextualize, contextualize, contextualize!!! IF you have internet access, do Google
searches, go to my website, or: http:// educacion.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/dow nloads/2013/03/docentes_ingles-1.pdf But Theres No Time, Technology, or Resources to Supplement! IF YOU HAVE NO TECHNOLOGY, use: Journaling Art/drawing Images (teachers and students both) Paper never hurt anybody! Again: gestures, body language, facial expressions, etc.! Help: Too Many Students in My Class! How do you group students, maximize speaking time, AND monitor all of them with a class of 40-plus students?
Some suggestions: Butterfly teacher is key! Random selections (e.g. name cards) so students must constantly be on toes. Mingling, pair, and group work can work! Students must be responsible for notetaking: recording everything that their classmates and teacher are saying! Help: Too Many Students in My Class! For pair and group work: requires students to constantly talk Pairings: strategically pair strong students with weaker students who get along well for certain periods of time Groups of 3 or more: strategic grouping is key (mixture is good!) Give each student a role for which they must be held accountable.
Website resources: http ://peopleleap.com/resources/documents/ > Miscellaneous Help: Too Many Students in My Class! Group Roles The Leader: Starts and leads the discussion. Makes sure that all topics are being discussed. Makes sure that all ideas are being discussed in a logical manner. Summarizes the discussion to the rest of the class. The Moderator / Negotiator:
Makes sure that everybody gets a f air chance to speak. Makes sure that everybody understands what is being discussed and that everybody is speaking clearly. Makes sure that all ideas are expressed in a polite and appropriate manner. The Timekeeper: Makes sure that the group discussion is moving along in a timely f ashion. Makes sure that all topics are being discussed within a proper amount of time. The Recorder / Organizer: Writes down all important ideas that are being discussed. Makes sure that all important ideas are being discussed in an organized way. Follow-Up Writing Summative
Activity: Myself and My Classmates Students write a paragraph describing themselves, their personalities, and what they want to be when they grow up using all previously learned: 1) simple past of be, 2) personality adjectives, 3) profession nouns. Give them a choice: they can also right about their ideal best friend or significant other using the same information. Always model an example of what youre expecting from students. Sometimes, it also helps to model a nonexample (the opposite of what you want). Follow-Up Writing Summative Activity: Myself and My Classmates For the paragraph, students must use at least: 5 personality adjectives
2 profession nouns At least 3 example of simple present be form At least 5 examples of past simple be form in singular, plural, positive, and negative Students can imitate the structure of teachers model paragraph Follow-Up Writing Summative Activity: Myself and My Classmates After writing and editing their paragraphs, students switch them with a student. In groups of 4-5, each student reads the others secret paragraph to his/her group mates and the others must guess who in the class it is!
Follow-Up Writing Summative Activity: Myself and My Classmates I am a student at ABC High school. I want to be a soccer player when I grow up because I like to compete and move my body. I think being a soccer player is a good profession for me because I am very athletic and cooperative and play well in teams. However, sometimes I want to be a politician because I want to change my country. I think I would be a good politician because I am hard-working, friendly, logical, and confident. Although many real politicians are not compassionate, I will be one of the few! When I was a child, I used to play in a soccer league with children who were older and stronger than I was. However, I was very brave, and I
Follow-Up Writing Summative Activity: Myself and My Classmates In my first year of high school, I was the student leader of my class. There were also two other leaders and we worked together. We were all decisive and organized, so we made a lot of good changes in the school. This experience gave me skills to be a confident politician in my country, Ecuador, when I grow up. I hope that my dream comes true someday. Now, can you guess who I am? A More Advanced Example: Born on 29th, August 1958, this talented person started his entertainment career as the lead singer of a famous group. The band was made up of his brothers who were all older than him, and was run by his father Joseph. The group
did very well and the star of the band was undoubtedly this person at only eleven years of age! He started singing solo two years later and pioneered the entry of African Americans into the world of pop music. Many different types of people around the world started following his creative music, which gave him instant success. His fans numbered in the millions even though A More Advanced Example: During his career he won 13 Grammies with singles that remained on the music charts for a very long time. This person's fame and fortune caused him to be the focus of billions of people and also led to his being followed by the paparazzi, the press, and the media constantly.
Sadly, he was sensitive about his appearance and was not confident about his nose, which his friends used to tease him about as a teen. This made him get surgery for his nose. This surgery was the first of many that he did throughout his life. His reasons for doing this are a mystery because he was born quite good-looking. In A More Advanced Example: However, he was always introverted and sometimes had a strange way of relating to people. His life took a sad turn when he was accused of child molestation. He was followed by the media who continued to obsess about the topic even though his innocence was proved. His image in public eyes was destroyed and even his devoted fans could not stop this damage to his reputation.
His unique dancing, singing, and songwriting skills have led to many entertainers copying him. This person was a philanthropist and his charities have helped millions worldwide. His death is a huge loss to the entertainment THE END! THANK YOU! ANY QUESTIONS? MY CONTACT INFO: My Website: www.peopleleap.com (go to Resources > Downloadable Documents, Learning Links, Reading Links, and Teacher Teacher Links!) My email: [email protected]
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