Tyler Lovelly, Donavon Bryan, Andrew Milluzzi EEL6935 - Embedded Systems Seminar Spring 2013 Topic: Aerospace Applications 02/07/13 1 of 42 Pulling the Pieces Together at AFRL Wegner, Peter M.; Kiziah, Rex R.; "Pulling the Pieces Together at AFRL", 4th Responsive Space Conference, April 2427, 2006, Los Angeles, CA 2 of 42 Introduction AFRL Space Vehicles Directorate pushing technology to enable rapid satellite development and launch Minimal cost and response time emphasized
Lead to heavy investment in new technologies for rapid spacecraft design and integration Experiments to demonstrate capabilities TacSat Missions Test beds and simulations 3 of 42 Operationally Responsive Space Joint effort between several DoD agencies to provide cheap and rapidly deployable space capabilities
Plans laid out in Space Science and Technology Vector-2 Total mission cost <$30M Less than one year development time Launch in 6 days from call-up Rapid integration with new technologies with new plug-nplay standards Small operator crews (<4 people) 4 of 42 Filling the Gaps Few options considered for Responsive Space
On-orbit storage of spacecraft Ground storage of spacecraft Adopted cost effective solution Technological advancements often outpace the rate of spacecraft development Deemed prohibitively expensive Need way to rapidly develop spacecraft and integrate new technology RSATS- Responsive Space Advanced Technology Study
Investigated technologies to develop these capabilities Proposed plug and play architectures utilizing internet-like data-bus architectures Identified key technologies to be developed Communications for tactical tasking and data dissemination Miniaturized spacecraft components and payloads Rapid deployment tools Modular plug and play spacecraft architectures and components 5 of 42 Spacecraft Plug-n-Play Avionics Responsive
capability through network structure Similar to the internet Plug-n-Play structure Standard Interfaces Modular components Low-data-rate systems SPA-U similar to USB 1.1 High-data-rate systems SPA-S similar to European Spacewire 6 of 42 Spacecraft Plug-n-Play Avionics Support for:
Data transport Power delivery Synchronization Single point ground connection Self descriptive hooks Features added to existing standards 28 V power Synchronization pulse (1 per second) Test interface 7 of 42 Satellite Data Model Components can share resources and data without needing to be
programmed XML Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (xTEDS) Identifies device Identifies resources for device Devices can post data to network, SDM will route it, using xTEDS to other parts of the network 8 of 42 Responsive Space Test-bed Responsive Satellite Cell Mock of system to demo realtime operation Hardware-in-the-loop simulation Satellite
Design Tool Design satellite based on mission characteristics Wizard approach Ground Control Station 9 and of 42 6-DoF Simulator Extending Plug-n-Play Moving from avionics to structural elements Leveraging SBIR grants to get additional systems for SPA Generate a PnP Catalog
Increase autonomous operation of satellites Fault detection Reconfiguration based on goals Collaborative decision making between 10 ofsatellites 42 Operational Experimentation TacSat-2 Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Specific Emitter Identification (SEI)
Downlink in same orbit pass Common Data Link (CDL) On-Orbit Checkout Experiment (OOCE) Autonomous Tasking Experiment (ATE) TacSat-3 Low-cost Hyperspectral Imager (HSI) HSI analysis of a given region for specific objects Returns tagged image
2nd generation CDL radio 11 of 42 Modeling Simulation & Analysis On-orbit experimentation is critical step Tech. must provide cost-effective military benefit Modeling Simulation and Analysis (MS&A) Provides initial military benefit analysis TacSat-2/TacSat-3 analyzed with MS&A Provide useful/timely info to warfighters
Unpredictable overflight time & innovative sensors counter enemy CC&D measures Gives field commanders significant advantage 12 of 42 Conclusions / Future Research AFRL chartered to develop new tech for future national security needs New series of tech & experiments on space-craft Provides tactical warfighter real-time info Can be rapidly tailored for new technologies Fast time to place into orbit
Tasked directly from tactical theater, returns valuable info AFRL pursuing Responsive Space tech & spacecraft Robust Plug-n-Play hardware & software Small, lightweight, low-cost components Ground-based & space-based experiments, test beds, analysis 13of 42 Operational experimentation with TacSat-2/TacSat-3 Development of the Malleable Signal Processor (MSP) for the Roadrunner On-Board Processing Experiment (ROPE) on the Tacsat-2 Spacecraft R.L. Coxe, et al; "Development of the Malleable Signal Processor (MSP) for the Roadrunner On-Board Processing Experiment (ROPE) on the Tacsat-2 Spacecraft", 2005 MAPLD International Conference, September 7-9, 2005, Washington D.C. 14 of 42 Introduction Malleable Signal Processor (MSP)
Reconfigurable computing engine. Five radiation-tolerant Virtex-II FPGAs Roadrunner On-Board Processing Exp. (ROPE) Multispectral Imaging (MSI) payload AFRL TacSat-2 satellite DoD 15 of 42 Responsive Space Initiative Development Plan Air Force Research Lab: Space
Vehicles Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) MSP requirements Pipelined radiometric calibration JPEG image compression Anomaly detection on multispectral imagery 42 prototyping 16 ofRapid Responsive Space Air Force Responsive Space Initiative
Demonstrated in TacSat missions 6-12 months development time <3 years lifetime Stored to orbit in <1 week Modular design methodologies, standard interfaces Collection/downlink of mission data in single pass Dynamic re-tasking faster-cheaper 17 of 42 ROPE Payload Roadrunner On-Board Processing Exp. (ROPE) Real-time, MSI processing system Major
components Wide-field MSI unit MSP Fusion Processor (FP) 8GB solid-state buffer 18 of 42 Malleable Signal Processor (MSP) Five radiation-tolerant Virtex-II FPGAs Military/industrial temperature grade COTS MicroBlaze soft processor in Service FPGA Software adjustable parameters MSP FPGA logic resources
Radiation-tolerant PROMs MSP Flight Eng. Model 19 of 42 configuration Malleable Signal Processor (MSP) Operational Personality Personality Personality Personality modes or personalities #1: 16:1 Lossy JPEG #2 : 4:1 Lossy JPEG #3: Calibration updates possible from ground
Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) SRAM-based FPGAs vulnerable Data errors, functional failures MSP/ROPE has no TMR, bitstream scubbing 20ofFP 42 reconfigs/power-cycles MSP after System Development Issues Responsive Space is wave of the future TacSat-2 one of the first missions Integration
of hardware was major hurdle Third-party IP cores used Xilinx: COREGEN & MicroBlaze Amphion Semiconductor: Lossy JPEG core 21 of 42 No major problems, new Xilinx ISE release solved issues Required much time/effort, ambiguous docs & timing data Birger Engineering: Lossless JPEG core
Conclusions Malleable Signal Processor (MSP) Five radiation-tolerant Virtex-II FPGAs Roadrunner On-board Processing Exp. (ROPE) Multispectral Imaging (MSI) payload TacSat-2 mission for AFRL Space Vehicles Air Force Responsive Space Initiative faster, cheaper, and good enough 22 of 42 Further Research
MSP supports rapid-prototyping of reconfig. computing apps without hardware modification Sonar beamforming Other pipelined FFT processing applications Real-time Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) More sophisticated anomaly and edge detection Neural computation engines Further 23 of 42 fault-tolerance for SEU Achieving Multipurpose Space Imaging with the ARTEMIS Reconfigurable Payload Processor Troxel, I.A.; Fehringer, M.; Chenoweth, M.T.; , "Achieving Multipurpose Space Imaging with the ARTEMIS Reconfigurable Payload Processor," Aerospace Conference, 2008 IEEE, vol., no., pp.1-8, 1-8 March 2008
24 of 42 Introduction ARTEMIS: Advanced Responsive Tactically Effective Military Imaging Spectrometer Payload Features for the TacSat-3 mission hybrid processing power, general purpose processor board and FPGAs Design focused on flexibility, reusability, fault tolerance 25 of 42 ARTEMIS Processor Architecture
Four types of boards constitute ARTEMIS Power Supply Universal Power Switch Receives 28V from spacecraft, regulates and distributes to other boards Relays commands for sensor power management G4-based single-board
computer (G4-SBC) Responsive Avionics Reconfigurable Computer (RA-RCC) 26 of 42 G4-SBC Includes MPC7457 processor, memory controller, and support FPGA Support FPGA provides fault tolerant memory interfaces, and external bus communication External interfaces
RS422 LVDS cPCI SpaceWire GigE Primary payload controller Controls external spacecraft interfaces Manages data up/down links Orchestrates data processing 27 of 42 RA-RCC
Controls sensor functionality, mass data storage, performs on-board processing of sensor data 4 total FPGAs Actel RTAX2000 3 Xilinx V4 LX160
Provides PCI interface to backplane and between other FPGAs Controls FPGA scrubbing Controls storage devices and UPS serial interface adaptable high-speed mezzanine interface Highly customizable interconnects to sensors, mission flexibility Flexibility designed for fault tolerance and reusability 28 of 42 Reconfigurability for Fault Tolerance Mezzanine I/O cards provide redundancy in sensor communications Varying degrees of redundant links can be established
29 of 42 Fault Tolerance Scrubbing configuration memory Handled by Rad-hard controller Many options for triple modular redundancy in the RA-RCC
Mezzanine cards can interface to external rad-hard voter Distributed voting Dedicated voter unit on COP Selective TMR 30 of 42 TacSat-3 Mission Operational from May 19 2009- Feb. 15 2012 Joint AFRL and NRL effort Primary focus was autonomous HIS processing Handed over to Air Force in 2010 First satellite to provide recon within 10 minutes of passing
31 of 42 Conclusions/ Future Work Mezzanine interface decouples sensors and processors Allows Fault for reuse in future generations tolerant architecture achieved with commercial components Upgrades and future missions with ARTEMIS planned 32 of 42 Tactical Satellite 3 CDL Communications, a Communications Link for Mission Utility Galindez, Richard; Davis, Thom; , "Tactical Satellite 3 CDL Communications, a Communications Link for Mission Utility," Military Communications Conference, 2007.
MILCOM 2007. IEEE , vol., no., pp.1-6, 29-31 Oct. 2007 33 of 42 Introduction Common Data Link Wideband communications waveform Launched in December 2006 with TacSat-2 274 Mbs down 200 Kbs up 12 parabolic antenna for ground communication Horn antenna for rover communication MMA originally for F-16 Not suited for LEO
34 of 42 Background on CDL Common Data Link (CDL) History Started in 1979 with Interoperable Data Link (IDL) In 1988 the Assistant Secretary of Defense ordered development of common communication architecture for all DoD services Decision based on success of IDL Full duplex, jam resistant spread spectrum signal Digital microwave system
35 of 42 The Difference of Space Space is much harsher environment than Earth Temperature swings Limited power Size and weight restrictions
Separate power for Tx/Rx The bigger an object and the heavier, the more it costs to launch No gases/liquids for heating/cooling Not likely to be fixed Fault-tolerance Electronic failure Radiation 36 of 42 Operational Responsive Space Tactical Low Satellites (TacSats)
cost Small Rapid response Not a perfect system Learning platform 2 years to launch vs. 5+ years for conventional 37 of 42 Need for CDL in Space Existing Infrastructure CDL is military standard Existing ground stations Multiplex with airborne systems Reduced Lifetime Costs No need to purchase new
system for communication Only one system to support Parts can be reused between systems 38 of 42 Example Ground uplinks collection task TacSat-3 Moves to target position and collects data Data is processed and sent back to earth TacSat-3 waits for new task
Raw data is sent down when it has next opportunity 39 of 42 TacSat-3 Part Analysis Radio Frequency Assembly Parabolic Antenna Special modifications required to ensure stability in temperature swing Horn Antenna Microwave Modem Assembly
More than 12,000 parts 1,000 active parts 350 unique parts Limits on Tin, Zinc, and Cadmium Some connectors had to be modified to get around Cadmium restriction 40 of 42 Radiation Total Ionizing Dose is less than 70 rad
Not considered a significant risk to electronics Single Events harder to estimate Figure 4. shows lower high energy particle interference with 41 vs. 60 System only on for 45 minutes per day System also powers down over South Atlantic Anomaly 41 of 42 Summary and Conclusion TacSat-3 is an agile development approach to satellites Validated solutions to many of the
problems that come with using terrestrial systems in space System leverages hardware reuse while still ensuring operation in space Paper does not go into exact details of success No discussion on tests performed and observed performance 42 of 42
Only the major splice variant mRNA sequence. None of the above. Team Workshop 2: How can ion-selectivity mutations in SCN2A relate to disease. Team Workshop 3: Draw the possible Lysine methylation structures and list outcomes of altered Lysine methylation or...
Demand Management Ensuring demand for IT services matches the capacity Service Design Service Catalog Management Maintain accurate information on all operational services Service Level Management Negotiate and document service targets with customers Capacity Management Ensure cost-justifiable capacity exists and is...
"Determine whether traditional child safety messages are effective or adequate. Examines the three basic premises underlying child safety messages—stranger danger, being a tattletale, and respecting adults—and how they may make children move vulnerable rather than less" (Allen, 1998)
Bilirubin formed in peripheral tissues is transported to liver by albumin. IN LIVER: 1)Uptake of bilirubin by liver paranchmal cells. 2)conjugation of bilirubin with glucuronate in endoplasmic reticulum
Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure market and pure command. c. Compare and contrast the basic types of economic systems found in Canada, Cuba, and Brazil. What is Economics? Economics is the...
Ancient Rome The Late Empire Distribution of largess, detail of the north frieze of the arch of Constantine Rome, Italy, 312-315 A.D. Constantine is shown here with attendants, distributing largess to grateful citizens who approach him Figures move without natural...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!