Edexcel AS Level Biology

Edexcel AS Level Biology

ClickBiology cell membrane controls what enters and leaves the cell cytoplasm metabolic (chemical) reactions occur here nucleus contains the DNA and so controls the cell DNA contains the

coded instructions to make proteins ClickBiology cell membrane nucleus chloroplast large sap vacuole cellulose cell wall cytoplasm

ClickBiology CELL S Nucle us Cytoplas m Cell membrane Vacuole Cell Wall Chloropl

ast cell surface membrane cytoplasm contains no nucleus allows more room for haemoglobin cytoplasm contains haemoglobin haemoglobin is a protein which carries the oxygen molecules bi-concave disc shape increases surface area

over which absorption of oxygen can occur ClickBiology muscle The strands of protein (Actin and Myosin) slide over each other making the muscle cell (fibre) shorter and causing the muscle to contract Muscle cells have many nuclei and large no: of

mitochondria. cell surface membrane nucleus protein strands ClickBiology cilia Cilia are small extensions of the cell. They beat rhythmically to sweep mucus, which has trapped bacteria and dust, away from the lungs nucleus

magnification X3000 ClickBiology xylem vessels are continuous tubes xylem vessel no cytoplasm hollow: allows for continuous flow of water and dissolved mineral ions lignin water-proof and strong; helps support the plant cross-section

longitudinal section ClickBiology Cross-section of a root hair cell cytoplasm contains no chloroplasts as no photosynthesis is needed cell membrane semi-permeable, so will allow water and mineral ions into the cell root hair cell

increases surface area for absorption of water and mineral ions ClickBiology CELL S Nucle us Cytoplas m Cell membrane Vacuole

Cell Wall Chloropl ast All cells have these features in common: a nucleus contains genetic material which controls the cell's behaviour. cytoplasm where chemical processes (controlled by enzymes) take place a cell membrane

which controls what passes into and out of the cell In addition, plant cells have the following unique features: a rigid cell wall made of cellulose vacuoles chloroplasts to strengthen the cell to store cell sap contain chlorophyll which enables photosynthesis to take place.

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