Ecology - Katy ISD

Ecology - Katy ISD

4/7 Pick up: Ecology Booklet If you missed a TEST come see me now! REMINDER: OLC fieldtrip Thursday wear old shoes! Ecologythe scientific study of interactions between

different organisms and between organisms and their environment or surroundings A. Bioticliving factors that influence an ecosystem B. Abioticnon-living factors that influence an ecosystem ex: temperature, humidity, wind, soil, sunlight

Autotrophs A. Sunlight is the main energy source for life on earth B. Also called producers C. Use light or chemical energy to make food 1. Plants -- land 2. Plant-like protists (algae) upper layers of ocean

3. Photosynthetic bacteria tidal flats and salt marshes D. Photosynthesisuse light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates (Remember: CO2 + H2O Light Energy

O2 + C6H12O6) E. Chemosynthesisperformed by bacteria, use inorganic chemical compounds to produce carbohydrates ex: sulfur in tidal flats Heterotrophs A. Organisms that rely on other organisms

for their energy and food supply B. Also called consumers Herbivoresobtain energy by eating only plants Carnivoreseat only animals

Omnivoreseat both plants and animals Decomposersbreaks down dead organic matter ex: bacteria, protists and fungi Detritivore eats dead plant and animal material (detritus)

Piscivore carnivore that eats only fish Frugivore herbivore or omnivore that eats mainly fruit Insectivore carnivore that eats mainly insects Feeding Interactions A. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs

(producers) and then to heterotrophs (consumers) B. Food Chainseries of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten 1. Arrows go in the direction of how energy is transferred 2. Start with producer and end with top consumer or carnivore

Ex: grass cricket frog raccoon

C. Food Webnetwork of food chains within an ecosystem Hawks Weasels Raccoons Mice

Grass Grass Which of the organisms above is the top consumer? Hawks Which of the organisms above is the producer? 4/8 Get out:

Ecology Booklet Reminder: OLC on Thursday Test corrections and make-ups today after school Xz-Q Wolves change rivers

Warm-Up: With your table partner, use as many cards as you can to create a food chain. STOP! Once you are done, try and make a food web connecting all of your cards.

D. Trophic Levelseach step in a food chain or food web 1. Level 1Producers (autotrophs) 2. Level 2Primary Consumers (herbivores) 1o consumers 3. Level 3Secondary Consumers (carnivores or omnivores) 20 consumers 4. Level 4Tertiary Consumers

(carnivoreusually top carnivore) 3o consumers 5. Level 5 Quaternary consumers 40 consumers Hawks Food Webs Raccoons

Weasels Mice Grass IV. Ecological Pyramids A. Diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or

organisms (matter) contained within each trophic level of a food chain or web B. Energy Pyramid shows relative amount of energy available at each trophic level 1. Organisms in a trophic level use 90% of the available energy for life processes (such as growth, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, metabolism,

and release some energy as heat etc.) Remember: Every chemical process that happens in your body releases heat as a byproduct (ex: burning calories). 2. Rule of 10only about 10% of the available energy

stored within a trophic level is transferred to the next higher trophic level C. Biomass Pyramidrepresents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level Energy and Biomass Pyramid (together)

Represents amount of energy available at each level as well as amount of living tissue both decrease with each increasing trophic level Why do you think this occurs? EOC Practice Question

4/10 Turn in Desert Food Web Stack A OLC Activity Stack B Reminders: Ecology Quiz Next Thursday

V. Ecological Interactions between organisms A. Competitionwhen two organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time. Ex: food, water, shelter Direct competition results in: winner (survives and reproduces) loser (dies, fails to reproduce)

survival of the fittest (natural selection) Monkeys compete with each other and other animals for food. Rams compete with each other for mates.

B. Habitatwhere an organism lives, includes both biotic and abiotic factors. C. Nichethe ecological niche involves both the place where an organism lives and the roles that an organism has in its habitat; how an organism lives and uses its habitat. Example: The ecological niche of a sunflower growing in the

backyard includes absorbing light, water and nutrients (for photosynthesis), providing shelter and food for other organisms (e.g. bees, ants, etc.), and giving off oxygen into the atmosphere. D. Predationone organism captures and feeds on another organism 1. Predatorone that does the killing

2. Preyone that is the food E. Symbiosisany relationship in which two species live closely together 1. Mutualismboth species benefit (WIN-WIN) a. Ex: insects and flowers Can you think of any other examples that weve talked about in class?

2. Commensalismone member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. (WIN-0) Example: barnacles on a whale 3. Parasitismone organisms lives on or inside another organism (host) and harms it.

The parasite obtains all or part of its nutritional needs from the host. (WIN-LOSE) Example: fleas on a dog VI. Levels of organization in the biosphere A. Population group of individuals of same species living in same area B. Community assemblage of different

populations (of different species) living in same area C. Ecosystem all organisms in a particular place and the surrounding physical environment D. Biome group of ecosystems with same climate and same dominant communities E. Biosphere the part of the planet where all

life exists; includes land, water, air (atmosphere) Levels of Organization in Biosphere 4/13 Get out: -Ecology Crossword

-Bring to me for stamp if completed Pick up: Nitrogen Cycle Tutorial sheet -Reminders: -ECOLOGY QUIZ Thursday -All extra credit due tomorrow 4/15

Pick up: Lynx Packet Get out HW: put on my desk Reminder: Quiz tomorrow 4/17 Pick Up: Items for Whiteboard practice

Textbook Get out: Notes succession/cycles Reminder: Ecology Test Next Wednesday Bring tape for stamps! Have a great Easter Warm-Up 1. Carbon dioxide makes up less than 1 percent of Earth's atmosphere, and oxygen makes up about 20 percent.

These percentages are maintained most directly by the processes of A. absorption and evaporation. B. fertilization and recombination. C. respiration and photosynthesis. D. nitrogen fixation and mineralization. 2. How does a plant take in nitrogen? A. A plant takes in nitrogen as ammonium (NH4+) after a decomposing animal has released the ammonium. B. A plant takes in nitrogen as atmospheric nitrogen (N2) captured directly from the atmosphere.

C. A plant takes in nitrogen as nitrates (NO3-) after nitrogen has been transformed by bacteria. D. A plant takes in nitrogen as nitrites (NO2-) received directly from other plants. 3. One of the nutrient cycles moves from an atmospheric gaseous form to the soil through both fixation and biotic assimilation processes, moves through the food web, then is returned to the soil or to the atmosphere. Which cycle fits this description? A. B. C.

D. carbon nitrogen phosphorus water Warm-Up

4. Hundreds of years ago, a volcanic eruption killed many plants and animals on a tropical island. Today, the island looks much as it did before the eruption. Why is this true? A. Destroyed ecosystems always return to their exact original state. B. Altered ecosystems only regain stability from the development of grasses. C. Geographic barriers prevent the migration of animals to island habitats. D. Destroyed environments can recover through ecological succession. 5. Lichens and mosses are often the first organisms to grow in a bare area. Over time, grasses and shrubs will grow where lichens and mosses grew. The grasses and shrubs are

able to grow in the area because the lichens and mosses A. make the environment suitable for complex plants. B. are the producers in every stable ecosystem. C. synthesize specific bacteria for the grasses and shrubs. D. provide enzymes needed for complex plant growth. Warm-Up Cont. 6. The 1988 fires of Yellowstone National Park cleared large areas of vegetation, leaving nothing

but soil intact. When life returns to a previously established community such as Yellowstone, this process is A. primary succession B. biodiversity C. secondary succession D. speciation 7. After a town is abandoned, the concrete parking lots remain empty and inactive for hundreds of years. What is the most likely order of ecological succession in that area?

A. Grass trees lichens moss B. Lichens grass trees shrubs C. Shrubs grass trees lichens D. Lichens grass shrubs trees 4/16 Get out Lynx Eats Hare w.s. Show me completed

assignment for stamp Get out all stamps write name on stamps Get ready for QUIZ!

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