Ecology - I Love Science

Ecology - I Love Science

Ecology Define Ecology Define Ecology study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment

Describe each of the following terms: Biosphere Biotic Abiotic Describe each of the following terms:

Biosphere - part of Earth that supports life, including the top portion of Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and all the water on Earth's surface Biotic - living Abiotic non-living Describe each of the following

terms: Biome Describe each of the following terms: Biome - large geographic areas with similar climates and ecosystems Includes:

TUNDRA TAIGA DESERT TROPICAL RAINFOREST TEMPERATE RAINFOREST DECIDUOUS FOREST DESERT

GRASSLAND Describe each of the following terms: Organism Population Community

Describe each of the following terms: Organism one of any living thing Population - all the organisms that belong to the same species living in a community Community - all the populations of different species that live in an ecosystem

Describe each of the following terms: Ecosystem Habitat Niche Describe each of the following terms:

Ecosystem - all the living organisms that live in an area and the nonliving features of their environment Habitat - place where an organism lives and that provides the types of food, shelter, moisture, and temperature needed for survival Niche - in an ecosystem, refers to the unique ways an organism survives, obtains food and

shelter, and avoids danger Describe each of the following terms: Limiting factor Carrying capacity Describe each of the following

terms: Limiting factor - anything that can restrict the size of a population, including living and nonliving features of an ecosystem, such as predators or drought Carrying capacity - largest number of individuals of a particular species that an ecosystem can support over time

Describe each of the following terms: Producer Consumer Decomposer Describe each of the following

terms: Producer - organism, such as a green plant or alga, that uses an outside source of energy like the Sun to create energyrich food molecules Consumer - organism that cannot create energy-rich molecules but obtains its food by eating other organisms Decomposer consume wastes and

dead organisms Describe each of the following terms: Predator Prey Describe each of the following

terms: Predator an animal that hunts and kills other animals for food. A predator is a consumer [carnivore or omnivore] Prey an animal that is hunted and caught for food. Prey is a consumer; it may be a herbivore, omnivore, or carnivore.

Describe each of the following terms: Carnivore Herbivore Omnivore Describe each of the following

terms: Carnivore eat omnivores or other carnivores [other consumers] Herbivore eat producers Omnivore eat producers and consumers Describe each of the following

terms: Adaptations of consumers: Carnivore - meat-eating animal with sharp canine teeth specialized to rip and tear flesh Herbivore - plant-eating mammal with incisors specialized to cut vegetation and large, flat molars to grind it Omnivore - plant- and meat-eating animal with

incisors specialized to cut vegetables, premolars to chew meat, and molars to grind food Review food chains, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers http://www.planetpals.com/foodch

ain.html Describe each of the following terms: Energy flow through an ecosystem Describe each of the following terms:

Energy flow through an ecosystem - the movement of energy through an ecosystem through food webs. The transfer of energy from one organism to another. Review the flow of energy through plants and animals here:

http://www.ftexploring.com/me/me 2.html Describe each of the following terms: Food chain Food web

Describe each of the following terms: Food chain - chain of organisms along which energy , in the form of food passes. An organism feeds on the link before it and is in turn prey for the link after it. Food web - Complex network of many interconnected food chains and feeding

relationships; a group of interconnecting food chains Review food chains here: http://www.vtaide.com/png/foodch ains.htm Describe each of the following

terms: Energy pyramid Describe each of the following terms: Energy pyramid a way of showing energy flow. As the amount of available energy decreases, the pyramid gets

smaller. Each layer on a pyramid is called a trophic level. Describe each of the following terms: Review energy pyramids here: http://www.ftexploring.com/me/pyr

amid.html Describe each of the following terms:

Mutualism Commensalism Symbiosis Parasitism Describe each of the following terms:

Mutualism - a type of symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit Commensalism - a type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is not affected Symbiosis - any close relationship between species, including mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism

Parasitism -a type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed Describe each of the following terms: Succession Primary succession

Secondary succession Describe each of the following terms: Succession - natural, gradual changes in the types of species that live in an area; can be primary or secondary Primary succession takes where no

soil exists Secondary succession takes place where soil is already present Describe each of the following terms: Pioneer species Climax community

Describe each of the following terms: Pioneer species - a group of hardy organisms, such as lichens, found in the primary stage of succession and that begin an area's soil-building process Climax community - stable, end stage of

ecological succession in which the plants and animals of a community use resources efficiently and balance is maintained by disturbances such as fire. Review succession here: http://library.thinkquest.org/17456/ succession1.html

List the types of biomes: List the types of biomes:

Tundra Taiga Desert

Tropical rain forest Temperate rain forest Grasslands Freshwater Saltwater Describe each biome Taiga - world's largest biome, located

south of the tundra between 50 N and 60 N latitude; has long, cold winters, precipitation between 35 cm and 100 cm each year, cone-bearing evergreen trees, and dense forests Describe each biome Tundra - cold, dry, treeless biome with

less than 25 cm of precipitation each year, a short growing season, permafrost, and winters that can be six to nine months long Describe each biome Temperate rainforest - biome with 200 cm to 400 cm of precipitation each year, average temperatures between 9C and

12C, and forests dominated by trees with needlelike leaves Describe each biome Tropical rain forest - most biologically diverse biome; has an average temperature of 25C and receives between 200 cm and 600 cm of

precipitation each year Describe each biome Grasslands - temperate and tropical regions with 25 cm to 75 cm of precipitation each year that are dominated by climax communities of grasses; ideal for growing crops and raising cattle and

sheep Describe each biome Desert - driest biome on Earth with less than 25 cm of rain each year; has dunes or thin soil with little organic matter and plants and animals specially adapted to survive extreme conditions

Describe each biome Deciduous forest - biome usually having four distinct seasons, annual precipitation between 75 cm and 150 cm, and climax communities of deciduous trees Describe each biome

Freshwater - flowing water such as rivers and streams and standing water such as lakes, ponds, and wetlands Describe each biome Saltwater - oceans, seas, a few inland lakes, such as the Great Salt Lake in Utah, coastal inlets and estuaries

Review biomes here: http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/ msese/earthsysflr/biomes.html More information on biomes can be found here: http://mbgnet.mobot.org/

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