East Asia - tdahlberg.weebly.com

East Asia - tdahlberg.weebly.com

East Asia 1 http://www.google.com/imgres?q=east+asia&hl=en&sa=X&tbo=d&biw=1440&bih=760&tbm=is Landforms and Resources http://www.maps.com/ref_map.aspx?pid=11973 East Asia has a huge mainland area that includes rugged terrain. East Asia has a number of important islands

off its eastern coast. 2 Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus Mountain Ranges of the Region High mountains limited Chinas contact with rest of Asia Qinling Shandi Mountains divide northern China from the south Plateaus and Plains Mountainous area includes some sparsely populated basins, deserts includes Plateau of Tibet (Xizang Plateau) western Chinas Tarim Pendi Basin and Taklimakan Desert

tains n u o ndi M a h S g Qinlin Gobi Desert stretches from northwest China into Mongolia covers 500,000 square miles

Mongolian Plateau is in northeastern China Northern China includes Manchurian Plain, North China Plain http://www.visitbeyond.com/china/trips-in-china/central-china/xian-qinling-mountain-trekking-2-d http://www.einfopedia.com/the-gobi-desert.php esert D i b o G 3

River Systems The Huang He Huang He (Yellow River)northern China river starts in Kunlun Mountains in west, winds east for 3,000 miles empties into Yellow Sea, named for yellow silt the river carries The Chang Jiang Chang Jiang (Yangtze River)longest river in Asia flows 3,900 miles from Xizang (Tibet) to East China Sea major trade route; floods often causing great damage 4 Resources of East Asia

Land and Forests Limited farmland in sparsely populated, mountainous, western areas Abundant forests in China, Japan, Taiwan, North and South Korea Japan reserves forests by buying timber from other regions Water Resources Chinas long river systems are important to its economy provide crop irrigation, hydroelectric power, transportation Sea is important food source for East Asia Japan has one of worlds largest fishing industries 5

Climate and Vegetation East Asia has a dry highland climate in the west, and a humid climate in the east. 6 http://www.worldtravelguide.net/mongolia/pictures High Latitude Climate Zones Subarctic Small subarctic zones on Mongolias and Chinas Russian borders Summers are cool or cold; winters are brutally cold; climate is dry Highland Western Chinas highland zone temps vary with latitude, elevation Tundras have no trees, frozen soil a few feet below surface Semiarid

Includes parts of Mongolian Plateau where the vegetation is mostly short grasses, food for grazing animals Desert Most of regions deserts are in west central mainland Taklimakan Desertin west China, between Tian Shan, Kunlun mountains Gobi Desertin north China, southeast Mongolia 7 Tropical Zones Tropical Wet Typhoontropical storm that occurs in western Pacific High temperatures,

heavy rainfall, high humidity all year 8 Human-Environment Interaction The Chinese are building the Three Gorges Dam to control flooding. http://www.asianinfrastructure.com/news/newsthree-gorges-dam/ 9 The Three Gorges Dam An Engineering Feat In 1993, China began construction of the Three Gorges Dam

being built on Chinas Chang Jiang river to reduce flooding, generate power Chinas largest construction project is worlds biggest dam at e 600 ft high, and over a mile-wide Positive Effects Government believes dam will control Chang Jiang flooding river irrigates half of Chinas crops, drains one-fifth of land Giant turbines should generate 10% of Chinas electrical power Will make it easier for ships to reach Chinas interior through locks Negative Effects One to two million people will have to move hundreds of historical sites, scenic spots will be submerged In building dam, government has not protected the environment New reservoir will flood land, reduce animal habitats

submerged factories could leak chemicals into water 10 Use of Space in Urban Japan Crowded Living and Working Spaces Cities poisoned with mercury, PCBsfactory pollutantsin 1950s, 60s PCBs build up in animal tissue; cause disease, birth defects; banned in 1977 Many in cities live in apartments family of four in a one-bedroom apartment is common Some move to suburbs, but must commute several hours to work Coastal cities reclaim land with landfill

landfill is solid waste buried in layers of dirt; Tokyo puts factories, refineries on landfill 11 China China is the worlds most populous country and has been the dominant culture of East Asia since ancient times. 12 http://china-madrid.wikispaces.com/Population

Chinas Early History Early Civilization and the Dynasties Oldest continuous civilization; a settled society for 4,000 years Stone Age cultures later ruled by dynasties series of family rulers First is Shang in 1700s B.C.; Qin Dynasty unites small states in 221 B.C 13 China Opens Up to the World Europeans Arrive China is isolated until Europeans, like Marco Polo, arrive in 1200s

In 1800s, European powers seek access to Chinese markets Treaties force weak China to give Europeans privileges spheres of influenceterritory awarded to European nations, Japan Chinese anger over outside control leads to 1900 Boxer Rebellion Chinese militants kill Europeans, Chinese Christians Revolution and Change In 1912 Sun Yat-sen helps found Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) Chinese Communist Party fights, defeats Nationalists, in 1949 Mao Zedong rules mainland Peoples Republic Chiang Kai-shek, Nationalists flee to Taiwan Moderate Deng Xiaoping rules China from 1976 through 1980s 14

Rural and Industrial Economies The Rural Economy China is largely rural society, agriculturally self-sufficient river valleys have rich soil; 60% of workers on farms Can only farm 13% of land due to mountains, deserts grows enough to feed population Eastern river basins produce rice, maize, wheat, sweet potatoes The Industrial Economy Northeast industrial center: coal, iron ore, oil, transportation Shanghai is manufacturing, industrial center Heavy industries (steel, machinery); consumer goods (textiles) 15

A Rich and Complex Culture From Pottery to Painting Early pottery, bronzes, jade disks, wall paintings found in tombs Confucius artists used clay, bronze, jade, ivory, lacquer Chinese Inventions Paper, printing, gunpowder, compass, porcelain, silk cloth Religious and Ethical Traditions Chinese philosopher Confucius (551479 B.C.) inspires Confucianism

orderly, educated society has respect for past, ancestors children obey parents; parents obey government, emperor Taoismfrom Tao-te Ching book of Lao-tzu teachings (500s B.C.) preserve, restore harmony in individual, universe Indian Buddhism grows in China, influenced by Confucianism, Taoism Taoism Buddha 16

The Most Populous Country Population Patterns One-fifth of worlds people live in China population is about 1.3 billion Many of Chinas 22 provinces are bigger than most countries Henan province has 93 million, more than Great Britain 70% of people live in 12 eastern provinces; in the west, 6% of nations people live on 55% of its land 17 Mongolia and Taiwan

Taiwan and Mongolia have developed in the shadow of their giant neighborChina. The countries of the region include both capitalist and socialist economies. Taiwan Mongolia 18 A History of Nomads and Traders The Mongolian Empire Mongols are nomadic herders until Genghis Khan conquers Central Asia

Genghis Khan dies in 1227; successors expand empire Empire breaks up in 1300s, China gains control of Mongolia in 1600s Mongolians achieve independence in 1911 Mongolia becomes Communist in 1924 remains Communist until 1989 fall of USSR Mongolia now moving toward democracy Taiwans Link to China Prehistoric people migrate to Taiwan from China, southeast Asia Malays, Polynesians settle on island; Han Chinese arrive in 500s Manchu Dynasty conquers Taiwan in 1683

Japanese take Taiwan (Formosa) in 1895 after victory over China Chinese Nationalists lose to Communists, flee to island in 1949 establish Republic of China; not recognized by China 19 http://favimages.com/image/239486/ Cultures of Mongolia and Taiwan Mongolia In mid-1300s Chinese rise up and drive out Mongol rulers In 1600s, China under Manchus conquers Mongolia, rules for centuries Mongols adopt many aspects of Chinese culture

Julys festival of Three Games of Men in Naadam is 2,300 years old wrestling, archery, horse racing rooted in ancient way of life Taiwan Population and culture is almost exclusively Chinese Most speak official language of Northern Chinese (Mandarin) People combine a number of religious, ethical beliefs 90% practice blend of Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism 20 Two Very Different Economies Economic Prospects for Mongolia Many herd, manage livestock (sheep, goats, camels, horses, cattle)

cashmere industry uses soft wool of local goats Developing industries while making difficult shift to market economy Large deposits of coal, petroleum, copper, gold, iron Taiwans Economic Success Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea are economic tigersnations with: cheap labor, high technology, aggressive exports 21 Daily Life in Mongolia and Taiwan Herding in Mongolia Nomads once guided animals from grassland to grassland

long, cold winters, short, hot summers are hard on livestock Nomads live in tents called yurts, made of felt, leather yurts are even found in capital of Ulaanbaatar Many still raise sheep, cattle, goats; some are still nomadic 22 The Koreas: North and South http://articlesofinterest-kelley.blogspot.com/2011/06/june-15th-korea-and-china-will-hold.html

The Korean peninsula is divided into two separate countries. 23 A Divided Peninsula Ancient Korea and Foreign Influences China conquers northern peninsula around 100 B.C. Koreans regain land, form Three Kingdoms in late 300s Koguryo (northeast), Paekche (southwest), Silla (southeast) Japan conquers Korea in 1910, rules until WWII defeat in 1945

Two Koreas: North and South In 1950, North Korean troops invade South Korea, begin Korean War 1953 treaty ends war, divides peninsula North Korea is Communist state, South Korea is democracy two nations remain hostile, but reunification discussions have begun 24 Influences on Korean Culture The Chinese Influence Korea adopts many philosophical, religious ideas from China Confucian, Buddhist influences

Other Cultural Influences Communism molds North Korean culture, while South Korea is influenced by Western culture North Korean government only allows Communist or folk art South Korean artists have more freedom of expression 25 Moving Toward Unity An Armed Society Both North and South Korea build huge armies after WWII Danger of war always looms2 million troops on both sides of border

26 Economic and Human Resources Economic Patterns South Korea is economic tiger with successful, competitive economy Population Patterns Most live on coastal plains, river valleys South Korea has 45% of peninsulas land, 66% of population Souths largest city is Seoul (population 10 million) Norths is Pyongyang (population 2.5 million) 27 Japan

Japan has an ancient culture and traditions, and it is the economic giant of East Asia. 28 Samurai and Shogun Ancient Japan 1,500 years ago agriculture, metalworking widely practiced Until A.D. 300s, Japan has many clans, but Yamato clan rules by 400s by 600, Yamato leaders call themselves emperors of Japan Samuraione who guards; hired soldiers serve landowners, chiefs The Shoguns In 1192, after a clan struggle, emperor creates shogun position shogungeneral of emperors army with military dictator powers

controls officials, judges, armies; picks governors (daimyo) During 700-year shogun rule, Japan fights off Mongol invasions Last shogun resigns in 1868; emperor becomes head of government 29 Emerging World Power By the early 20th century, Japan is a major power Expanding empire puts Japans interests in conflict with U.S. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, naval base December 7, 1941 attack brings U.S. into WWII; Japan defeated, surrenders in 1945

U.S. occupies Japan; brings political, economic reforms Japan becomes democracy constitutional monarchy with emperor and elected parliament 30 An Economic Powerhouse People and Products Post-war economic boom makes Japans economy second in size to U.S. Japan imports resources to manufacture products for export exports autos, electronics, computers Strong ties between business and government help economy Economic Slowdown After four decades of rapid growth, economy slows in 1990s

Reasons for slowdown regional competition (Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong), Japanese stock market has big losses Japanese investments in Southeast Asian economies lose value Japanese save rather than spend declining exports 31 Japanese Culture A Traditional People Kyoto shows ideas of beauty in gardens, palaces, Buddhist temples Noh plays (histories and legends; masked actors) develop in 1300s Kabuki plays in 1600s have colorful scenery,

costumes 32 Life in Todays Japan Education Highly structured educational system students in school six days a week; six weeks of summer vacation six years of elementary, three of junior high, three of high school 33 Todays Issues: East Asia

The issues facing East Asian nations include earthquakes, economic recessions, growing populations, and rapidly changing societies. Section 1: The Ring of Fire Because of its location, Japan has faced disastrous earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Section 2: Trade and Prosperity

34 http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/ringfire.htm Physical Forces in the Ring of Fire Shifting Plates Many Japanese cities are threatened by earthquakes Japan is on the Ring of Firechain of volcanoes around Pacific Rim Subductionoceanic plate slides under continental plate In East Asia, Pacific oceanic plate meets Eurasian continental plate stress builds where plates meet; sudden slip creates earthquake

35 The Geology of Japan Volcanoes Volcanoes formed Japanese islands Since first records, at least 60 Japanese volcanoes have been active best-known Japanese landform, Mt. Fuji, is a volcano Earthquakes and Tsunamis An average of 1,000 earthquakes occur in Japan each year Underwater earthquakes move ocean floor; can create tsunami huge wave of great destructive power that can reach over 100 feet

36 Preparing for Disasters Problems Older buildings wont withstand earthquakes as well as newer ones Underground gas lines are likely to rupture in an earthquake Crowded blocks and narrow streets hinder rescue operations Solutions Japan has strict building code engineers study how different buildings withstand quakes studies affect codes governing construction materials, techniques Schoolchildren have yearly disaster drills

with firemen 37 Trade and Prosperity East Asian economies became global powerhouses in the 1970s and 1980s. The decline of Asian economies in the 1990s created a crisis that spread around the globe. 38 Industrialization and Globalization After WWII, nations industrialize, East-West trade increases

Made in China, Made in Japan labels are common in West Regional economies merge, global economy develops global economynations are interdependent for goods, services Japan imports resources, exports manufactured goods worldwide East Asian nations use cheap labor to become manufacturing powers 39 Powerful Economies of East Asia called the Jakota Triangle

Japan, Korea (South), Taiwan But by mid-1990s these economies are having problems 40 http://aventalearning.com/courses/GEOGx-HS-A09/b/Unit07/GeoHS_7.C.8.html Zone of Prosperity Economically powerful nations in Pacific Rim zone of prosperity

Economic Problems Arise Asian economies run on efficiency, innovation, and cheap labor 1995 report from UNICEF (the United Nations Childrens Fund) over 500,000 East Asian children work in factories, beg on streets Bank, business bankruptcies in mid-1990s panic foreign investors they sell Asian stocks; riots occur; governments topple Japan enters recessionan extended decline in business activity 41

Bibliography Mcdougal Littell, World Geography. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2012 42

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