Cultures of North America

Cultures of North America

Terms and People culture way of life culture area region in which groups of people have a similar way of life kayak a small boat made from skins

potlatch a ceremony at which the hosts showered their guests with gifts Terms and People (continued) adobe sun-dried brick clans groups of families that were related to one another

sachem tribal chief Objectives Learn about the earliest peoples of North America. Discover what different groups of Native Americans had in common.

Explore the impact of geography on Native American cultures. How did geography influence the development of cultures in North America? In North America, groups of people developed unique cultures. Around 3,000 years ago, various groups began to inhabit an area stretching from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi Valley.

These people are called Mound Builders because they constructed large piles of earth as burial places or as the foundations of buildings. One group of Mound Builders, the Mississippians, built the first cities in North America. The Anasazi culture emerged in southern Utah, Colorado, northern Arizona, and New Mexico. The Anasazi built large cliff dwellings and were skilled at making baskets, pottery, and jewelry.

Mysteriously, by 1300, the Anasazi had abandoned their cliff dwellings. Scholars classify Native Americans into numerous culture areas. Ways of Life Hunting and Gathering

In many culture areas, women gathered plants and roots, and men hunted and fished. Farming In other culture areas, Native Americans grew crops suited to the climate in which they lived. Farming areas had much larger populations than nonfarming areas. Trading

Culture areas all shared trade in common. Some areas used seashells or beads as currency. Many Native Americans felt a close relationship to the natural world. They believed that spirits dwelled in nature and that these spirits were part of their daily lives. Native American storytellers passed down their beliefs and history from generation to generation.

Well before 10,000 B.C., Native Americans spread across the North American continent. Native American tribes built different kinds of homes. The types of houses they built depended on the climate and

the geography in the region where they lived. People of the Arctic, Subarctic, and Pacific Northwest People of the Arctic They lived in a bitterly cold land. People of the Subarctic

They lived in dense forests in a land too cold for farming. People of the Pacific Northwest They lived in areas with plentiful animals and plants, so they were able to live in permanent settlements even though they were not farmers. They ate fish, shellfish, and birds and hunted marine mammals from kayaks.

They hunted caribou, moose, and bear. In many societies of the Northwest, high-ranking people practiced a custom called the potlatch. gifts Hosts Guests The potlatch was a ceremony at which the hosts showered their guests with gifts such as woven cloth, baskets, canoes, and furs.

A familys status was judged by how much wealth it could give away. People of the Far West and the Southwest People of the Far West They lived in different geographic regions, ranging from cold northern forests and grasslands to hot southern deserts. Housing types ranged from pit houses to bark houses to wooden houses. People

of the Southwest The climate in their region was dry most of the year but wet in July and August. Some people farmed; others hunted. The Pueblo people, such as the Hopis and Zunis, had stable towns with houses made of adobe.

The towns lasted for hundreds of years. In the Eastern Plains, the people farmed and lived in earth lodges. Much of the Western Plains was too dry to farm, so the people hunted buffalo, which provided them with most of the things they needed to live. People in the Western Plains lived in tepees or

round pits in the ground. People of the Eastern Woodlands Early People of the Eastern Woodlands The earliest woodlands people hunted, fished, and gathered nuts and berries. By about A.D. 1000, some woodlands people had begun farming. Algonquian These people spoke Algonquian languages

People and lived in southern Canada, the Great Lakes area, and along the Atlantic coast to Virginia. Iroquois People These groups of people spoke Iroquoian languages and lived in what is now New York. The Iroquois were made up of five distinct nations, and each nation was made up of clans. Women had great influence in Iroquois society:

Membership in a clan was passed from a mother to her children. Women owned all the property that belonged to a clan and chose the clans sachem. During the 1500s, the five Iroquois nations went through a period of constant warfare.

When the nations finally stopped fighting, they established the League of the Iroquois, a council that made laws to keep the peace. The Iroquois wrote their own constitution. People of the Southeast Cherokees and Creeks The land and the climate of the southeast supported farming. The Cherokees and the Creeks built wooden-frame houses covered with straw mats and plastered with mud clay.

Natchez People These people lived on the Gulf Coast. They created a complex society with a ruler, nobles, and commoners. 1. In a______, groups of people have a similar way of life. 2. Woven cloth, baskets, canoes, and furs were common gifts at a _____ 3. Women in Iroquois clans

chose the clans ______, or tribal chief. True or False 4. A group of Iroquois families that were related to one another was called a ______. a. Sachem b. culture area c. Great Plains d. Potlatch e. Clan

f. cliff dwellings 5. The Anasazi lived in large earthen mounds. 6. The Hohokam lived in the deserts of what is now southern Mexico. 7. The Indians of the Southeast held a Green Bean Ceremony in late summer. 8. To teach their children about benevolent spirits, the Pueblos carved kachina dolls. 9. What two large Native American groups dominated the Eastern Woodlands, and which of these groups was made up of five nations? 1. b 2. d 3. a

4. e 5.F, cliff dwellings 6.F, Arizona 7.F 8.F 9. The Algonquian group and the Iroquoian group dominated the Eastern Woodlands. The Iroquois were made up of five distinct nations.

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