A Primer on SZ Surveys Gil Holder Institute for Advanced Study Outline Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect Upcoming surveys Whats next?
Optical Image of Cl 0016+16 (Clowe et al. 2000) ~ 7 ~ 2 h-1 Mpc Hot Gas in Cl 0016+16
(Reese) kT ~ 7.5 keV Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect I CMB
Hot electrons CMB+ Optical depth: ~ 0.01 Fractional energy gain per scatter: kT
~ 0.01 2 me c SZ Observables I Along a line of sight: T
kT g ( ) dl n (l ) T 2 e T mec DEPENDS ONLY ON CLUSTER PROPERTIES !!!! Independent of redshift
Temperature weighted electron column density Unique spectral signature Non-Thermal Spectrum Abell 2163 Data from 3
experiments SZ Observables II Integrated effect from cluster: 1 S T d n kT dV 2 e
d A ( z) proportional to total thermal energy of electrons Temperature weighted electron inventory angular diameter distance, not luminosity distance SZ Observables III In reasonable units ( i.e., 1/h):
S fgh d A ( z) 2 M T
Assume a virial relation: T M S fgh d A ( z) 2
M 2/3 5/3 uncertainties come in mass limit as ^(0.6) SZE Regularity
Metzler ; astro-ph/9812295 dTo Central decrement vs Mass 40% scatter
Average SZ flux vs Mass 10% scatter Searching for Galaxy Clusters Small area; very deep - AMI, AMIBA, BOLOCAM, SZA Large area; relatively shallow - ACBAR, PLANCK Large area; very deep
- ACT, SPT Mass Limits Fluxes at 30 GHz PLANCK SZA
Foregrounds CMB need good angular resolution and/or good spectral resolution; problem at all SZ frequencies Radio point sources need good angular resolution for frequencies <90 GHz Dusty point sources need good angular resolution and/or spectral resolution at frequencies >200 GHz
Radio halos and ghosts could be a problem at frequencies < 15 GHz SZA Survey 10 square degrees to a few uK at resolution of 2-3 arcminutes at 30 GHz Expected mass limit ~ 1014 h 1M Follow up catalog at 90 GHz for high resolution (<20)
CMB contamination?? clusters are clearly at a different spatial scale close amplitudes means beam dilution catches up fast !!! Roughly 1 deg x 1deg labels are uK
Cosmology With the SZA Holder, Haiman & Mohr 2001 Dark Energy With the SZA 12 square degrees
assume NO systematic errors assume redshifts measured to z=2 PLANCK Survey the full sky to a few uK at resolution of 5-10 arcminutes at many frequencies Expected mass limit ~8 1014 h 1M
Cluster detections will be unresolved point sources with SZE-like spectra 1000 50000 clusters expected Cosmology With Planck Black: all z Red: z<0.5 only
Holder, Haiman & Mohr 2001 SPT/ACT/??? Survey ~1000 square degrees to a few uK at resolution of 1-2 arcminutes at several frequencies 14 1 Expected mass limit ~2.5 10 h M
Most powerful for cosmology 5000 200000 clusters expected Cosmology with the SPT Holder, Haiman & Mohr 2001 dN/dz for SPT
Dark Energy With the SPT Also sensitive to time dependent equation of state (Weller, Battye & Kneissl 2001) Possible Plan of Action
1) Use AMI/AMIBA/BOLOCAM/SZA to define a significant SZE-selected sample 2) Follow up at many wavelengths: optical, X-ray, radio, cm, mm (including SZA!) 3) Do a very large, deep survey for precise measurements of cosmological parameters On the Horizon uK imaging between 30-400 GHz with arcminute resolution
-- SPT, ACT, dedicated interferometers, ALMA, etc. New science opportunities & challenges -- peculiar velocities, -- spectral SZ -- CMB lensing Peculiar Velocities (Kinetic SZ) Pure redshift, blueshift => thermal spectrum T
v T c Arcminutes scales => CMB ~ 1 uK -- CMB noise contribution = 10 km/s (0.01/) Other contamination: 50 km/s ? (Fischer & Lange 1993)
Relativistic Corrections Lensing of the CMB Typical CMB gradient -- 15 uK/arcmin Typical deflection angle -- ~ 0.1-1 arcmin
(Seljak and Zaldarriaga ) Summary New cluster surveys coming soon Detailed follow-up will be required of some sample of SZE-selected clusters Ambitious survey machines in proposal stages could be extremely powerful
Z=0.83 Gallery of SZ Images Z=0.14 M lim 5x1014 h 1M sun Green: shift
in matter density by 10% Holder & Carlstrom 2001 Counting Galaxy Clusters
dN dn dV dM dzd M lim dM dzd Mass limit
Mass function (Jenkins, Press-Schechter) Volume element Self-Similar Evolution
Holder & Carlstrom 2001 Effects of Gas Evolution Holder & Carlstrom 2001
Angular Power Spectrum of SZ Sources Holder & Carlstrom 2001
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