NT1110 Computer Structure and Logic MODULE 6 A: TROUBLESHOOTING AND NETWORKS 1 Class Agenda 8/19/16
Chapter 10 and 11 Learning Objectives Discussion on Assignments and Lab. Break Times as per School Regulations. Assignment will be given in the next class Reading Assignment. Final exams will be held in the next class.
Submit all assignments by next class. Objectives What is the purpose of a network? What are some examples of network components?
How are networks defined by geography? How are networks defined by topology? How are networks defined by resource location? OSI Model 3 Introducing Computer Networks What comes to mind when you thinks of a computer network? Is it the Internet? Is it e-mail? Is it the wireless connection that lets you print to your printer from your
laptop? Whatever your current perception of a computer network , this lesson will help you gain a deep appreciation and understanding of networked computing. 4 Data Communication System 5
Network Definition A network is a set of devices connected by communication link to share resources The devices are often referred as node. Node can be a computer, printer or any other devices capable of sending and receiving data. A link can be a cable, air, optical fiber, or any medium which can transport a signal carrying information 6 Defining a Network
It can serve a variety of purposes including: File sharing between two computers Video chatting across different parts of the world Surfing the Web Instant messaging (IM) between computer with IM software installed. E-mail
Voice over IP (VoIP) A converged network is one that transports multiple forms of traffic (video, voice, and data) 7 Overview of Network Components Figure 1-1 Sample Computer Network 8 Hardware Used By Local Networks
In this section you will learn about: Desktop and laptop devices Hubs Switches Bridges Other network devices Cables and connectors these devices use 9 Overview of Network Components Client: The term client defines the device an end user uses to
access a network. Server: A server provides resources to a network. (Email, Web pages, or files) Hub: A hub is an older technology that interconnects network components. A hub broadcasts messages to all connected devices other than the recipient. Network interface cards (NICs) :Hardware cards installed in computers so that they can connect to a physical network 10 Overview of Network Components
Switch: A switch interconnects network components. Unlike a hub, a switch makes forwarding decisions based on physical addresses. Router: A router is connection device that makes forwarding decisions based on logical network addresses. Media: The media is the physical substance on which the information of the system travels, such as copper wire for carrying electronic signals. WAN link: Most networks connect to one or more other networks. The link that interconnects those networks is typically referred to as a widearea network (WAN) link. 11 Network classification by Geography
WAN Figure 1-3 Sample WAN Topology 14 Other Area Networks CAN: A CAN is created from interconnecting multiple LANs MAN: A MAN is between a LAN and a WAN, typically covering a metropolitan area such as three office branches in the same city.
PAN: A PAN is created from the interconnection of personal devices such as a phone, headset, and portable tablet. 15 Network classification by Topology In addition to classifying networks based on the geographical placement of their components, another approach to classifying a network is to use the networks topology. There are two major topology groupings Physical Topology
Logical Topology 16 Network Topology Physical Versus Logical Topology Physical Topology -- how components are physical interconnected determines the physical topology Logical Topology -- the actual traffic flow determines the logical topology 17
Network Topology 18 Bus Topology Figure 1-6 Bus Topology 19 Ring Topology
Figure 1-8 Ring Topology 20 Star Topology Figure 1-9 Star Topology 21 Full-Mesh Topology Figure 1-11 Full-Mesh Topology 22
Network classification Resource Location and functionality Yet another way to categorize networks is based on where network resources reside. Network that have all the resources residing in a server are called client server networks. Network that have their resources on several clients and no server is called a peer-to-peer network 23
Client-Server Network Figure 1-13 Client-Server Network Example 24 Peer-to-Peer Network Figure 1-14 Peer-to-Peer Network Example 25 Classes of transmission media
26 The Purpose of Reference Models It breaks network communication into smaller, simpler parts that are easier to develop. It facilitates standardization of network components to allow multiple-vendor development and support. It allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other. It prevents changes in one layer from affecting the other layers so that they can develop more quickly. It breaks network communication into smaller parts to make learning
it easier to understand. 27 The OSI seven-layer model Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical
Figure 2-2 OSI Stack 28 Protocol Data Unit (PDU) Application Presentation Session Figure 2-3 PDU Names Transport
Segments Network Packets Data Link Frames Physical
Bits 29 The TCP/IP and OSI Models Compared OSI Stack TCP/IP Stack Application Presentation
Application Session Transport Transport Network Internet
Data Link Network Interface Physical Figure 2-15 TCP/IP Stack 30 TCP/IP Protocol Layers Figure 17-42 How software, protocols, and technology on a TCP/IP network relate to each other. Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
31 IP Addresses IPv4 IP address: 32 bits long, made up of 4 bytes, each 8 bits long Four decimal numbers separated by periods 188.8.131.52 Largest possible 8-bit number 11111111 (255 decimal)
Largest possible decimal IP address 255.255.255.255 11111111.11111111.11111111.11111111 binary 0 to 255, 4.3 billion potential IP addresses 32 Classful Addressing Classful IP Addresses are divided into classes Classes are defined by first octet address Each class has a predefined subnet mask Class
1st Octet Range Relevant Subnet Mask A 1-127 255.0.0.0 B
128-191 255.255.0.0 C 192-223 255.255.255.0 D
224-239 Not defined: Used for Multicasting E 240-255 Not defined, Experimental
33 Configuring Clients for IPv4 and IPv6 DHCP Automates the allocation of IP addresses through a server-based role APIPA addresses Allow clients on the same subnet to communicate without DHCP or manual configuration
34 35 Configuring Clients for IPv4 and IPv6 Manually configuring IP addresses Often referred to as static configuration or a static IP addresses Static IP addresses Commonly used on servers where a dynamic IP address would affect network resources
36 Troubleshooting connectivity PING, IPCONFIG Ping (Packet InterNet Groper) command Tests connectivity by sending echo request to a remote computer Ipconfig command Displays TCP/IP configuration information and refreshes the IP address
37 How to Troubleshoot a PC Problem Approach the problem first as an investigator and discoverer Do not compound the problem Ask questions until problem source understood Positive attitude Use a systematic method to solve a problem Interspersed with 15 rules
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 38 Figure 11-5 General approach to problem solving. Courtesy: Course Technology/Cengage Learning
A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, 7e 39 Summary You were introduced to various network components, including client, server, hub, switch, router, media, and WAN Links One way to classify networks is by their geographical dispersion, Specifically, these network types were identified: LAN, WAN, CAN, MAN, and PAN Another approach to classifying networks is based on a networks
topology. Examples of network types, based on topology, include bus, ring, star, partial mesh, full mesh, and hub and spoke. This chapter contrasted client-server and peer-to-peer networks. 40 Assignments. Lab: Complete the lab titled: Troubleshooting Networking Issues Preparation for Final Exam: Prepare for the Final Exam. Final Exam is the next class.
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