Collaboration between IAEA and ATI The Past • The Present ...
Radiation Protection Issues in Nuclear Installations (NPP & RR) Laszlo Sagi Radiation Safety and Monitoring Section Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety Department of Nuclear Safety and Security IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Objectives Health risks for staff while visiting nuclear facilities Nuclear power plants (NPPs) Research reactors (RRs) Procedures to enter, stay in and exit controlled areas
IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Outline Sources of radiation Measures to reduce risk External radiation exposure Internal radiation exposure Controlled areas
Definition Boundaries Entrance and exit Instrumentation IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Nuclear Installations Research reactors Neutron factories for training, research, materials testing or isotope production for medicine and industry Currently around 240 facilities in 56 countries Power: 100 kWth to 100 MWth in continuous operation Inventory of fission products (10 MWth unit): 1018 Bq
Nuclear power plants For energy production Power: 100 MWth to 2000 MWth Inventory of fission products (1000 MWth unit): 1020 Bq IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Sources of Radiation
Fuel in reactor core, spent fuel and core components Activation, fission and corrosion products Activated equipment, systems and piping Solid and liquid radioactive waste Gaseous radioactive material Experimental facilities generating activated or other radioactive material Tools and facilities for storage and handling of radioactive material Irradiated material Start-up neutron sources
Neutron detectors (fission chambers, self-powered neutron detectors) Components of purification (filters and ion exchange columns) IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations External Radiation Exposure Spectral distribution (Normalised to max=1) All applications Hospital Testing Isotope
Nuclear power Averages 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 10
100 1000 Photon energy (keV) IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Measures to Reduce Risk Basic principles to reduce radiation exposure and risk Minimise the time of radiation exposure Increase the distance from the source Use appropriate material to provide shielding
Time (t) IAEA Distance (d) Shielding (s) Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Internal Radiation Exposure No risk for intake of radionuclides by inhalation or ingestion during normal operation Risk for immersion
IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Measures to Reduce Risk Basic measures to reduce internal radiation exposure Do not smoke Do not eat or drink Do not apply cosmetics Use personal protective equipment (gloves, overcoats, respirators, ) Fit test before use IAEA
Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Supervised and Controlled Areas Radiation areas are designated as to the maximum permissible effective dose rates 1 mSv/yr 6 mSv/yr 20 mSv/yr 0.5 Sv/h 3 Sv/h
10 Sv/h Free area Supervised area PUBLIC IAEA Controlled area OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED WORKERS
Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Protective Measures In controlled areas, specific protective measures or safety provisions are or could be required for Preventing incorporation and the spread of contamination during normal working conditions Preventing or limiting the extent of potential exposures IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations
Administrative Procedures Read and follow the local rules and procedures that are appropriate for controlled areas IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Boundaries of Controlled Areas Extent of controlled areas should be clearly defined Where practicable, the
boundaries coincide with fixed barriers such as walls and doors of a room Registrants and licensees shall delineate controlled areas by physical means or, where this is not reasonably practicable, by some other suitable means IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Entrance to Controlled Areas Registrants and licensees shall provide, as appropriate, at entrances to controlled areas
Protective clothing and equipment Individual and workplace monitoring equipment Suitable storage for personal clothing IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Signs and Symbols Warning symbol and instructions at access points to : prohibit unauthorized access To use suitable PPE
Symbols recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Instrumentation in Controlled Areas Fixed and portable radiation monitors Alarm system (acoustic and visual) IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations
Exit from Controlled Areas Monitoring equipment regarding contamination of skin, clothing and objects to be removed from area Washing or showering facilities Suitable storage for contaminated protective clothing and equipment IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Personnel Contamination Monitoring Monitoring : systematically and carefully stand straight on clean pad,
feet spread slightly, arms extended, palms up and fingers straight out Monitor both hands and arms, then repeat with hands and arms turned over Monitor carefully forehead, nose, mouth, neckline, torso, knees and ankles; repeat on back of body
Monitor soles of feet IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Barrier Procedures for Footwear Disciplined shoe change procedure is essential to contain contamination in designated area - Remove one overshoe before immediately swinging the shoeless foot over the barrier
- Other foot may then be lifted to remove the second overshoe and again swinging the leg over the barrier without the shoeless foot touching the dirty area floor - Dirty overshoes may not leave the dirty area IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations Conclusions
Most facilities have their own radiological protection programmes, which are largely based on IAEA safety standards However, some facilities do not IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations References IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations
DISCUSSION What to do when IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency Where to keep the personal dosimeter (TLD) during checking ? Hold luggage ? 1-2 mSv or Hand luggage ? 10- 20 Sv IAEA
Quantities, exposures and Services 23 Can we take the TLD to the medical inspection (e.g. X-ray check) ? Please No ! The exposure 7- 8 mSv IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations What to do when your EPD beeps? Know what the alarm levels are (dose rate and dose). Walk away from the high dose rate area. (Increasing the
distance reduces the dose rates at the occupied location). Make dose rate measurements (if you have a dose rate meter - Do not use your EPD!!!) Plan through the work, using time, distance and shielding. If applicable - share the work with a colleague IAEA Quantities, exposures and Services 25 Am I protected from external radiation
by external barriers? Cotton Gloves, Overalls, Boots, Shoe Covers, Vinyl Gloves Prevents contamination of skin Helps minimize spread of contamination Does not provide protection against external exposure IAEA Quantities, exposures and Services 26 Thank you for your kind attention!
Mr Laszlo Sagi | Operational Radiatio n Monitoring Service Group Leader | Sectio n of Radiatio n Safety and Monitoring | Division of Radiatio n, Transport and Waste Safety | Department of Nuclear Safety a nd Security | Internatio nal Atomic Energy Agency | Vi enna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vi enna, Austria | Emai l: [email protected] | T: (+43-1) 2600-22508 | F: (+43-1) 2600 29653 | Fol low us on www.iaea.org IAEA Practice and risk at Nuclear Installations
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