Classification Suppose you had only 10 minutes to run into a supermarket to get what you needed. Could you do it? In most supermarkets this would be an easy task. You would probably head straight to the area where the items were located. But what if you had to shop for the same items in a market where things were randomly placed throughout the store.
Where would you begin? You would have to search through a lot of things before you found what you needed! You could be there for a long time! Classification putting things into groups based on similar characteristics Why Classify? Make sense out of a chaotic natural world
Easier to find information Identify relationships Biologist organize living things into categories Taxonomy - the science of identifying and classifying organisms We Use Classification Every Day!
Classify our clothes (hopefully they are not all mixed together in a big pile on your bedroom floor) Classify our dishes (bowls, plates, spoons, forks, cups) Classify our food (how did you know where to find the cereal this morning?)
Classifying 1 group
2 groups 3 groups 4 groups 5 groups Early Classification Aristotle 4th century B.C. Classification based on where animals lived
Land Water Air Problems Some animals fit into more than one group Early Classification Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linne) - Swedish
biologist in early 1700s Classification based on shape and structure The father of modern taxonomy Carolus Linnaeus Two important contributions Hierarchical
organisms Hierarchical Classification ranked from more general to more specific More General More Specific
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
At each level the organisms become more closely related Remembering Hierarchical Classification mnemonics Kingdom King Phylum
Phillip Class Came Order
Over Family For Genus Good
Species Soup Practice using Hierarchical classification The more levels you share with
others, the more you have in common Practice using Hierarchical classification Classify your closet into K,P,C,O,F,G,S Naming Organisms
Scientific name a name that remains the same in the biological world Why not use common names? Names are often not physically accurate Silverfish
Seahorse Names differ in other countries/languages Sweden - groda Africa - padda Russia - zhaba Italy - rana
FROG Many names may apply to the same creature Mt. Lion Puma Cougar One name may apply to several different
creatures European robin American robin Names are written in Latin In the Middle Ages, Latin became the
accepted language of the scholar and scientist Why Latin? Latin is a dead language It is no longer spoken as a national or even regional language anywhere in the world. Because of this, Latin words do not change so the pure Latin is not be
corrupted by developing slang words from it bruisecruise, shingrater, and stonesoup just some of the over 300 slang terms used to describe the same exact thing crashing on a skateboard Why Latin? Latin need not be translated
No matter what language you speak, the Latin scientific name is left as it is instead of using the common name Polynomial used many words to describe the organism Catnip "Nepeta floribus interrupte spicatus pendunculatis" (Nepeta with flowers in an
ciliates 12 words long! Name for humans hairy on top, bare on the bottom of the walking surfaces, bipedal, eyes forward with binocular vision, opposable thumbs, no wings, no feathers, capable of rational thought and
the capacity to love. Binomial nomenclature two part scientific name The scientific name for the Asian elephant is Elephas maximus
Rules for writing scientific names 1. Use the genus and species Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Elephas maximus Rules for writing scientific names 2. Genus is first It is always capitalized 3. Species is second
It is always lower case 4. Both words are italicized or underlined Example Ursus arctos or Ursus arctos The Mushroom Coral Phylum Cnidaria
Class Anthozoa Order Scleractinia Family Fungiidae
Genus Fungia Species scutaria
Practice using binomial nomenclature Remember that binomial nomenclature is a two-name naming systemkind of like a first and a last name. MaIia Kunde individual or species
Kunde malia The group I belong to or genus Kunde malia Practice using binomial nomenclature
Which of these names is written correctly in binomial nomenclature? A. felis domesticus B. Felis Domesticus C. Felis domesticus D. felis Domesticus What does a third name mean? Subspecies
tiger species is Panthera tigris Bengal tiger is Panthera tigris tigris Siberian tiger is Panthera tigris altaica Person who discovered it Strigiphilus aris garylarsoni
Abbreviating Use the Capital letter of the Genus Example: E. coli or T. rex Heterotrophic Eubacteria Cyanobacteria
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