Chemical Symbols, Formulas & Equations Chemical Symbols A symbol represents one element (1-3 letters) Symbol Writing Rules 1st letter is always capitalized 2nd & 3rd letters (if any) are always lower case Symbols O Sn Uut Oxygen Tin Ununtriu m
Co v CO Co CO Cobalt element #27 bluish metal Carbon monoxide Molecule: ( 1 carbon, 1 oxygen) colorless, odorless, tasteless, deadly gas IUPAC Naming New Elements New elements are being synthesized (made) in the lab Names for the element has to wait until the IUPAC naming committee meets A temporary name based on the atomic number IN LATIN is given to the new element Time to learn some Latin 1 un 4 7 sept 0-nil 2 bi quad 8 oct 9 enn 3 naming tri elements 5
Rules for 1. Break up the atomic pentnumber into digits (#118 becomes 1, 1, 8) 2. Replace the digits the Latin number (1, 1, 8 becomes un un 6with hex oct 3. Put the Latin numbers together and add ium ending ununoctium 4. The symbol is the first letter of each of the Latin numbers (follow the rules) ununoctium - Uuo IUPAC Samples Atomic Number Name Symbol 113 ununtrium Uut 234 bitriquadium Btq
506 pentnilhexium Pnh Chemical Formulas Chemical shorthand to describe a compound Gives the symbol & number of atoms of each element Rules for Formulas 1. every Capital letter indicates another element 2. a lowered number (called a subscript) after an element tells you how many atoms of that element are in the compound/molecule (no subscript means 1) 3. A number in front of a FORMULA tells you how many units or molecules of that substance there are (this is called the formula coefficient) Examples (Formula Rules 1 & 2) Compound Formula # Atoms of Each Element Carbon Dioxide
2- Oxygens 1-Carbon 3-Oxygens Polyatomic Ions (parts in parentheses) Some combinations of elements bond together and act like an element they usually stay together Examples: Phosphate PO4 Hydroxide OH Ammonium NH4 Acetate C2H3O2 Nitrate NO3 Because there is more than one element bonded together, if more than one polyatomic ion is needed you Wrap parentheses around the ion in the formula Put the subscript outside the parentheses Counting Elements with () Since the polyatomic ion acts like an element, its subscript multiplies the number of ions needed Ex. ClO3 is a poly atomic ion called chlorate so Mg(ClO3)2
means we have 1 magnesium and 2 chlorates But each chlorate is 1-chlorine and 3-oxygens Therefore the subscript outside the () multiplies the each of the number of elements inside the parentheses for the total (ClO3)2 ends up with 2-chlorines (2 *1) and 6oxygens (2*3) Counting with Polyatomic Ions Samples Formula Element Count Ca3(PO4)2 3-Calcium 2-Phosphorous (2*1) 8-Oxygen (2*4) Al(C2H3O2)3 Al 1-Aluminum 6-Carbon (3*2) 9-Hydrogen (3*3) 6-Oxygen (3*2) Review Practice Compound HgBr2 Be(NO3)2
Contents 1-Mercury 2-Bromine 1-Beryllium 2-Nitrogen (1*2) 6-Oxygen (3*2) Al(C2H3O2)3 1-Aluminum 6 Carbon (2*3) 9-Hydrogen (3*3) 6-Oxygen (2*3) Example (Formula Rule #3) C2H6O + 3O2 3H2O + 1CHO 3- O 3- H O 2- CO 2CO 2 2 6 molecule is needed (no number means 1)
2-Carbons 6Hydrogens 2 molecules are needed 6-Oxygens 2 molecules are needed 6Hydrogens 3-Oxygens 2 molecules are needed 2 Carbons 4-Oxygens Coefficient Samples Formula
Contents 4 H2O 4*2 = 8 Hydrogen 2 MgCl2 3 C6H12O6 4*1 = 4 Oxygen 2*1 = 2 Magnesium 2*2 = 4 Chlorine 3*6 = 18 Carbon 3*12 = 36 Hydrogen 3*6 = 18 Oxygen Do # 18, 19, 20 on back page Review Video Putting it all together Since a coefficient multiplies the number of compounds then The coefficient will also multiply the number of polyatomic ions Rule: The coefficient AND a subscript outside the parentheses BOTH multiply the elements inside the parentheses.
Example 3 Ca3(PO4)2 9-Calcium (3*3) 6-Phosphorus (3*1*2) 24-Oxygen *(3*4*2) Other Examples Compound Count 3 (NH4)2SO4 6-Nitrogen (3*1*2) 24-Hydrogen (3*4*2) 3-Sulfur (3*1) 12-Oxygen (3*4) 4 Cu(NO3)2 4-Copper (4*1) 8-Nitrogen (4*1*2) 24-Oxygen (4*3*2) Conservation of Mass Matter cannot be created or destroyed (actually the law states that the total amount of matter + energy in a closed system remains constant but that is a little lofty for what we will be doing) For Us: In a reaction the total number of elements we start the reaction with must equal the total number of elements we end with.
Example H2 + O2 H2O Since the totals on each side of the are not equal we need to use coefficients to balance the equation Balancing a Chemical Equation Samples Samples S + O2 1- sulfur SO2-oxygen 2 Na + O2 1 sodium 2Na + O2 oxygen
x2 1hydroge H2 + Cl2 2HCl n 2- hydrogen 212-chlorine hydroge chlorine n Ag2O Ag + O2 22-silver 1-silver chlorine 12oxygen oxygen x2 2 Ag2O Ag + O2 4-silver 22oxygen Ag2O 1-silver
2oxygen 4Ag + x4 O2 hange Balancing a Chemical Equation Equation H2 + O 2 2-hydrogen H2O 2-oxygen Procedure Count the atoms on each side of the equation () 2hydroge Select one of the elements n need to multiply the oxygen on that are out of balance and 1the right by 2 H2 + O2 2H use a coefficient to multiply
oxygen 2O its compound & recount 24 hydroge hydroge n Repeat this process until all 2Hn2 + O2 2H O 2 22elements are balanced 44oxygen oxygen (numbers of an element hydroge hydroge are the same on each side) n n 22oxygen oxygen ONLY the COEFFICIENTS, NEVER the SUBSCRIPT x2 x2 Balancing a Chemical Equation
Samples Samples CO + O2 CH4 + O2 1- carbon 11- carbon CO3-oxygen 2 carbonx2 x2 just the CO (1/2) 2 CO + x3 O2 2-carbon 4-oxygen N (1/2) + H 2 2 2
nitrogen 2N2 + 3H2 hydroge n 2 nitrogen 6hydroge n 2-2CO2 2oxygen carbon 4NH3 oxygen 1nitrogen 3 hydroge 2NH3 n 2nitrogen 6hydroge n x2 4hydrogen CH4 2-oxygen + O2 1- carbon 4 hydrogen CH4 2-oxygen + 2O2 x2
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