Chapter Five International Business Styles Gladys Hung Key vocabulary The characteristics of management often vary according to national culture, which can determine how managers are trained, how they lead people and how they approach their jobs. The amount of responsibility of any individual in a company depends on the position that he or she occupies in its hierarchy. Mangers, for example, are responsible for leading the people
directly under them, who are called subordinates. Key vocabulary To do this successfully, they must use their authority, which is the right to take decisions and give orders. Mangers often delegate authority. This means that employees at lower levels in the company hierarchy can use their initiative, that is make decisions without asking the manager. Reading paragraph one
The does and dont of travelling abroad are a potential minefield for the unprepared traveller. If you spit in some countries, you could end up in prison. In others, spitting is a competitive sport. Reading paragraph 2 The Centre for International Briefing has spent 40 years preparing the wary traveller for such pitfalls. Though it may sound like a covert operation for aspiring secret agents. What the Centre does is prepare travellers for encounters with new social and business customs worldwide. To date, over 50,000 people have passed
through its headquarters at Farnham Castle in Surrey. There are two broad tracks to our training programme. explains Jeff Tom, Marketing Director. One covers business needs, the other social etiquette. For example, business travellers need to know how decision-making works. Reading paragraph 3 and 4 In Asian cultures most of it takes place behind the scenes. In China, it may be necessary to have government involved in any decisions taken. And in India, people are sometimes late for a scheduled appointment. Greetings, gestures and terms of address are all
potential hazards abroad. While we are familiar with short firm handshake in this part of the world, in Middle East the hand is held in a loose grip for a longer time. In Islamic cultures, showing the soles of your feet is a sign of disrespect and crossing your legs is seen as offensive. Reading paragraph 5 The difference between understanding a culture and ignoring its conventions can be the measure of success or failure abroad. Jeff Tom tells the story of a British employee asked to post a letter by her Indonesian employer. She knew the letter was too late for the six oclock post, so she decided to hold it
until the eight oclock one. Her boss saw the letter on her desk and sacked her for not posting it immediately. In Western cultures, we believe in empowering people and rewarding them for using initiative, but other cultures operate on the basis of obeying direct orders. Reading paragraph 6 John Doherty, International Marketing Director with the Irish Industrial Development Authority, explains how you can easily take yourself into trouble at a business meeting in Japan: For them, the most senior person at the meeting will say very little, and the person doing most of the
talking is now very important. Doherty has spent 12 of his 16 years with the IDA working abroad in USA, Germany, South-East Asia and Japan. Reading paragraph 7 In a country like Japan, the notion of personal space which we value so simply has no meaning, he says. With a population of 125 million condensed into a narrow strip of land, private space for the Japanese is virtually non-existent. You cant worry about your personal space in a packed train when people are
standing on your feet. Reading paragraph 8 Tiptoeing through the minefield DO Show an interest in, and at least an elementary knowledge of the country you are visiting.
Learn a few words of the language it will be seen as a compliment. Be sensitive to countries who have bigger and better-known neighbours, and try not to confuse Canadians with Americans, New Zealanders with Australians, Belgians with French. Familiarise yourself with the basics of business and social etiquette. As a starting point, learning how to greet people is very important. Reading paragraph 8 Tiptoeing through the minefield Dont
Assume you wont meet any communication problems because you speak English. You may think you are paying somebody a compliment by telling them their business is going a bomb. Americans will infer you think it is falling. Appear too reserved. As Americans are generally more exuberant than their European colleagues, they may equate reserve with lack of enthusiasm. Vocabulary Hierarchy: a system of persons or things
arranged in a graded order Subordinate: Belonging to a lower or inferior class or rank; secondary. Delegate: To commit or entrust to another Initiative: The power or ability to begin or to follow through energetically with a plan or task Vocabulary paragraph 1 and 2 Potential: Having possibility, capability, or power Minefield: A situation that has many potential haz ards or dangers. Competitive: - involving competition or competitiv
eness Pitfall: an unsuspected difficulty or danger Covert: concealed or secret Vocabulary paragraph 3 and 4 Hazard:A chance of being injured or harmed; danger Offensive:Causing anger, displeasure, resentment, o r affront Convention: A practice or procedure widely observed in a group, especially to facilitate social interaction; a custom Sack: terminate the employment of; discharge from
an office or position Vocabulary paragraph 5-8 Condensed: narrower than usual for a particular height Compare Virtually: practically; nearly Sensitive: Susceptible to the attitudes, feelings, or circumstances of others. Compliment: An expression of praise, admiration, or
congratulation. Etiquette: rules governing socially acceptable behavior Vocabulary paragraph 8 Infer: To conclude from evidence or premises. Exuberant: Lavish; extravagant. Equate: To make equal or equivalent. reserve: To keep or secure for oneself; retain Prefixes p. 48
prefix rule Example Im- before words starting with m but also in front of words starting with p. Impossible Immoral il il- before words starting with l.
Illegal in Use in- before any other letter, except inadequate p, l, r incomplete ir ir- before words starting with r. Irresponsible Irresistible
Prefixes the difference between dis- and un- Dis- combines freely with nouns, verbs and adjectives disorder, disobey, dishonest, for example. Un- combines freely with adjectives and participles
unfair, unassuming, unexpected, unclear, for example. disinterested/uninterested and in dissatisfied/unsatisfied. More rules about the difference between dis- and un- "un-" prefixes. One means "not" or "opposite", as in "unclean", "unsatisfied", and the other indicates a reverse of the action, as in "untie". "dis" means "not", "absense of",
"opposite of", "reverse". Answers on p. 48 a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. unlikely illiterate irresistible
disrespectful infrequent illiberal impolite unlawful Immature k. Irrational l. Disproportionate m. unhelpful j.
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