Chapter ---- Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starches and Fiber

Chapter ---- Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starches and Fiber

Chapter 16 Nutrition and Aging: The Adult Years Kcaloric restriction may increase life span by all of the following except: a) increasing the inflammatory response of the immune system b)

causing low level stress and thus enhancing the animal's coping mechanisms c) reducing blood glucose and insulin d) limiting oxidative damage

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Keeping Older Adults Healthy Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. By 2030 it is projected that nearly _____ of the US population will be over 65.

a) 5% b) 10% c) 20% d)

30% Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Life Expectancy in the United States What is morbidity vs mortality? Copyright 2010, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc. How Long Can You Expect to be Healthy? The avg life expectance is 77 in the US. The healthy lifespan is 69 years

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. What Causes Aging?

A hypothesis that has emerged to explain aging is termed programmed cell death. This theory proposes that genes determine the life span of cells; aging occurs as cells die As organisms become older, the number of cells they contain decreases and the function of the remaining cells declines. As tissues and organs lose cells, the ability of the organism to maintain homeostasis decreases. Loss of cells occurs throughout life but is not felt for a long time, as organisms begin with reserve capacity. In young adults, the reserve capacity of organs is four to ten

times that required to sustain life. As a person ages, reserve capacity decreases and the effects of aging become evident. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. What Causes Aging? The wear and tear hypothesis proposes

that aging is the result of an accumulation of cellular damage. Damage to cells may contribute to aging. Which of the following is a possible source of cell damage? A) errors in DNA synthesis B) free radicals C) elevated glucose levels

Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. What Affects the Rate of Aging? Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nutrient Needs for Older Adults Copyright 2010, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc. Factors that Increase the Risk of Malnutrition Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Consequences of Malnutrition Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Physiological Changes that Occur with Aging It is difficult to determine which changes that occur as we age are inevitable and which can be attributed to disease states. Some of the changes seen in aging can include:

Sensory decline Macular degeneration Cataracts Periodontal disease Atrophic gastritis

Decline in size and functioning of liver and kidneys Increase in body fat, decrease in lean body tissue Reduced hormone levels Decrease in mobility Dementia Alzheimers disease Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Decreased physical activity is estimated to account for ___ of the decrease in total energy expenditure that occurs with aging. 10%

25% 33% 50% Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Nutrient and Drug Interactions Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Nutrient and Drug Interactions Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Keeping Older Adults Healthy There are a variety of social and economic changes that often accompany aging. These

factors are interrelated and can affect nutritional status by decreasing the motivation to shop for, prepare and enjoy food and beverages. These changes can include: Income level Dependent living Depression Copyright 2010, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc. Keeping Older Adults Healthy Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The recommendations for fat and protein in older adults reflect their decreased ability to digest and absorb it. reflect their decreased ability to metabolize

fat and protein. are very strict because of the decreased energy requirement. are the same proportions and types of dietary fats and proteins as for younger adults. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The nutrient needs of the elderly remain the same although their energy needs decrease. Because of this,

the best advice for them is to eat larger portions of food consume a more nutrient dense diet eat less and exercise more eat more concentrated sweets Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Physical Activity for Older Adults Copyright 2010, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc. Warning Signs of Malnutrition in Older Adults: DETERMINE Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The DETERMINE checklist is most likely used to: assess the nutritional risk of malnutrition in older adults

confirm that there is no adverse interaction between food and prescription medication for an older adult decide if an older person should be hospitalized when they are ill qualify recipients for food stamps Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. National Nutrition

Programs for Older Adults Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 16 Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the . Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein. Copyright 2010, John Wiley &

Sons, Inc.

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