Chapter 9

Chapter 9

Give Me Liberty!: An American History by Eric Foner, 3rd edition CHAPTER 9 T H E M A R K E T R E V O LU T I O N, 1 8 0 0 - 1 8 4 0 A New Economy, 1800-1840 Steamboat, canal, railroad, and telegraph wrenched America out of its economic past Opened new land to settlement, lowered

transportation costs, made it easier to sell products Linked farmers to national and world markets Americans became major consumers of manuactured goods Erie Canal Rise of the West Between 1790 and 1840, 4.5 million people

crossed the Appalachian Mountains This is more than the entire population of the US in 1789 Six new states by 1815 Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Mississippi, and Maine 1840: 43 million acres of land sold to 7 million Americans (2/5 of total population) Ohio

1810: 231,000 1830: 900,000 1850: 2 million The Market Revolution: Western Settlement, 1800-1820 The Market Revolution: Transportation

Travel Time from NYC in 1800 and 1840 A Market Society Commercial farmers Growth of cities Cincinnati known as Porkopolis

Rise of factories American system of manufactures The Market Revolution: The Spread of Cotton Cultivation, 1820-1840 Cotton Mills, 1820s JOSEPHINE L. BAKER, "A SECOND PEEP AT FACTORY LIFE," LOWELL OFFERING (1845)

Transcript You ask...why we work in the mill. Well, simply for this reason, every situation in life, has its trials which must be borne, and factory life has no more than any other. There are many things we do not like...and many harsh words and acts that are not called for. There are objections also to the number of hours we work, to the length of time allotted to our meals, and to the low wages allowed for labor; objections that must and will be answered; for the time has come when something, besides the clothing and feeding of

the body is to be thought of; when the mind is to be clothed and fed; and this cannot be as it should be, with the present system of labor.... And the feeling too, that comes over us...when we hear the bell calling us away from repose the feeling, that we are obliged to go. And these few hours [after work], of which we have spoken, are far too short, three at the most at the close of the day. There is a brighter side to this picture...and an answer to the question, why we work here? The time we do have is our own. The money we earn comes promptly...and when finished

we feel perfectly free, till it is time to commence it again. Besides this, there are many pleasant associations connected with factory life, that are not to be found elsewhere. There are lectures, evening schools, and libraries, to which all may have access. Immigration Economic expansion fueled a demand for labor 1840-1860: 4+ million immigrate from

Ireland and Germany Why? Modernization of agriculture and industrial revolution displaced patterns of life

Oceangoing steamship and railroad make long distance travel more practical Political and religious freedom in America is attractive Disasters (i.e. Great Famine in Ireland) Nativism The idea of the US as a refuge for those seeking economic opportunity or as an escape from oppression has always coexisted with suspicion of and hostility to foreign

newcomers Alien Act of 1798 reflected fear of immigrants with radical political views Nativism blamed immigrants for urban crime, political corruption, and a fondness for liquor, and accused them of undercutting nativeborn skilled laborers by working for starvation wages. Major Cities, 1840 Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny Society was energetic, materialistic, and seemingly in constant motion Alexis de Tocqueville, No sooner do you set foot on American soil than you find yourself in a sort of tumult. All around you, everything is on the move. Manifest Destiny: US has a divinely appointed mission to occupy all of North

America Transcendentalists The restless, competitive world of the market revolution strongly encouraged the identification of American freedom with the absence of restraints on self-directed individuals seeking economic advancement and personal development Emerson: rather than a preexisting set of rights or privileges, freedom was an open-ended process of

self-realization by which individuals could remake themselves and their own lives. Primacy of individual judgement over existing social traditions and institutions Henry David Thoreau -Most people were so preoccupied with material things that they had no time to contemplate the beauties of nature -Walden Pond: 2 yrs

-Walden (1854) critique the Market revolution Degrading both American values & environment -Genuine freedom lay within Ralph Waldo Emerson Second Great Awakening First

Second 1700s 1800s Wanted to reform the Congregational church which had become pedantic Wanted to revitalize Christianity in America

Baptists grew Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield Camp meetings Spread like wildfire Emotional Inspired missionary work Democratized Christianity (mass enterprise) Every person is a moral free agent Each had the right to choose Baptists grew

Methodists grew Peter Cartwright and Charles Grandison Finney Camp meetings Spread like wildfire Emotional Inspired missionary work Bigger : the innovation of the day allow for a greater influence (ease of travel-allowed distant parts to be touched) Inspired reform movements Feminization of religion

The Limits of Prosperity Self-made man: those who achieved success did so not as a result of hereditary privilege or government favoritism as in Europe, but through their own intelligence and hard work. Produced a new middle class Created opportunities for farmers, lawyers, doctors, and teachers

Race and Opportunity Continual discrimination and segregation towards free blacks Free blacks experienced downward mobility Viewed as low-wage competitors, white artisans sought to bar free blacks from skilled employment NYC census of 1855:

122 black barbers and 808 black servants 1 black lawyer and 6 black doctors Barred from access to public land and four states prohibited them from entering their territory Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, and Oregon

Cult of Domesticity Women also barred from the opportunities of the Market Revolution Some moved from household to factories Others embraced a new definition of femininity Glorified a womans ability to create an environment shielded from the competitive tensions of the market

economy Womans place was in the home Her role was to sustain nonmarket values like love, friendship, and mutual obligation, providing men with a shelter from the competitive marketplace Women and Work For middle class is was a badge of respect for wives to remain home

Work was done by domestic servants, though Prevailing idea that male head of household commanded a living wage that enabled him to support his wife and children Overall impact of the Market Revolution Not everyone was convinced of its significance or liked the changes Many experienced the Market Revolution as loss of freedom

Protest: 1820s Workingmens Parties 10 hour days End imprisonment for debt Higher wages

The Market Revolution transformed and divided American society and its conception of freedom

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