CHAPTER 9: EXPANSION LEADS TO CONFLICT Big Picture: Between 1830 and 1860 Americans by the thousands migrated westward into the frontier wilderness. In 1846, souring relations led to war between Mexico and the United States, and the outcome defined Americas borders. CHAPTER 9 SECTION 1: MANIFEST DESTINY Main Idea: Americans in large numbers followed trails to the
West in the 1840s and 1850s Americans Head West Manifest Destiny Reasons to Migrate West Population and size of country grew rapidly by the 1840s Many Americans believed the idea that the nation had a God-given right to all of North America Little thought was given to the impact on others of
this belief Believed in manifest destiny Mountain men went to trap and trade Missionaries hoped to convert Native Americans to Christianity Lumberjacks and miners went to capitalize on natural resources Farmers moved for vast, rich land Entrepreneurs knew if they were first to set up shop the greater their chance for success
What does the artist try to portray? Major Western Trails The Santa Fe and Oregon Trail Santa Fe Trail: 800-miles from Independence, MO to Santa Fe, NM Began as a trade route; by the 1840s, it served as a route for migrants heading west Oregon Trail: 2,000miles from Independence, MO to Willamette Valley in OR Parts of it used by Native Americans for centuries, Lewis and Clark used parts on their expedition, along
with fur traders and mountain men The Mormon Trail 1830, Joseph Smith founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in NY, called Mormons In 5 years they attracted some 8,000 followers They faced hostility for their beliefs, like men being able to have several wives They migrated to area around Great Salt Lake
(present-day Utah) with The Gold Rush Gold Fever Rush to California Gold is discovered in the American River in 1848 many headed to CA to strike it rich! Most in the US did not believe until President James K. Polk announced he believed the supply to
be large and found in various places The gold rush is the mass migration of miners and businesspeople to CA The migrants that left for CA in 1849 were called forty-niners More than 80,000 arrive 80% are from the US Most traveled over land; others booked passage on a ship
Booming Cities Upon reaching CA, most miners moved into mining camps in the gold fields Others, especially businessmen, settled in the cities San Francisco in 1848 had 800 people, one year later more than 25,000 by 1860 it was home to some 60,000 people Major Effects of Westward Migration The Oregon Treaty
James K. Polk, presidential candidate, campaigned to secure the region of OR for the US Fifty-four Forty or Fight! was talking about the 5440 N latitude which marked the northern boundary of Oregon Country Polk won presidency but retreated from his pledge and settled at the 49th parallel with Great Britain Communication Links
Westward migration led to a need for better communication Butterfield Trail, private stagecoach line ran Pony Express, relied on young riders and fast horses Telegraph linked East to West and made the Pony Express obsolete The greatest effect was on the Native Americans whose life was changed forever. Chapter 9 Review Write the Question and the Answer
Chapter 9 Section 1 1. What factor triggered the largest wave of migration to the West? 2. Why was a journey west in the 1840s and 1850s a huge adventure? 3. What effect might the railroad have on the land in the western part of the United States? CHAPTER 9 SECTION 2: TEXAS INDEPENDENCE Main Idea: American settlers in Texas revolted against the Mexican government and created the independent Republic of Texas.
The Spanish Settle Texas Hundreds of Native American groups had lived in TX for thousands of years Spanish were the first Europeans to visit Texas They attempt to settle Texas with the mission system-small settlement started with goal to convert Native Americans to Catholicism Usually included a fort
They believed it would make the Native Americans loyal to the Spanish they did not. Americans Move into Texas Moses Austin (1820), former banker, proposed a plan to the Spanish to settle Texas Austin died before he could start the colony Stephen Austin (his son) carried out his plans 1823, he established his colony Mexico had gained its independence from Spain It granted large pieces of land to
empresarios-contractors who agreed to start colonies By 1830 more than 30,000 settlers in TX 4,000 were Tejanos-Texans of Mexican heritage The Texas Revolution Conditions of Settling Texas Become Mexican citizen Adopt the Roman Catholic religion Outlawed slavery Most settlers did not comply Believed they were Americans who happened to live in Mexico
and remained loyal to the US Mexicans grew concerned Cancelled empresario contracts Put tariffs on trade with US Angered settlers Tensions in Texas 1827, US offers to buy Texas and Mexico refuses Texans began to protest, which grew bloody Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna became president of Mexico Texans attack Mexican force at Gonzales and won
Start of Texas Revolution Texans formed a government Sam Houston given task of The Alamo Texan forces captured San Antonio, which contained a fort called the Alamo Santa Anna led an army of 6,000 to the fort William Travis, Texan leader, only had 200
Nearly all were killed when the Mexican army attacked Texans were also defeated at Refugio and Goliad (Mexican army massacred prisoners) Santa Anna followed Houstons forces to San Jacinto Texans defeated the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna Santa Anna was forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco
Texas became a separate nation called the Republic of Texas Chapter 9 Review Write the Question and the Answer Chapter 9 Section 2 4. List at least 2 main goals of the Spanish mission system. 5. How were the tensions within Texas similar to those between the United States and Mexico? 6. How did the American losses at the Alamo affect the Texas Revolution?
CHAPTER 9 SECTION 3: WAR WITH MEXICO Main Idea: Soon after annexing Texas, the United States declared war on Mexico The Annexation of Texas Pro-Annexation Anti-Annexation Americans believed in manifest destiny-adds large land area to country
Texas Revolution just like American Revolution Texas allowed slavery, meaning more political power Fear of bearing substantial Texas debt Opposed spread of slavery increasing voting power in Congress Nothing in Constitution about admitting an independent nation Annexation
approved Texas apart of the US December 29, 1845 Tensions Led to Mexican-American War Texas Annexation 1836, Texas gained independence from Mexico TX boundary is still disputed by the Mexican government US 1st recognized Nueces River as boundary; Texans claimed it was further south at the Rio Grande
President Polk wanted the land between Texas and the Pacific Ocean Polk sent a special messenger to Mexico (1845) and offered to pay $30 million for New Mexico and California; ,messenger ignored Meanwhile, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to advance into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grande Polk used April 25th skirmish as an excuse to request Congress to declare war on Mexico Ignoring boundary was in dispute, Polk charged the Mexicans had invaded our territory and shed the
blood of our fellow-citizens on our own soil. US declared war on Mexico May 13, 1846 Fighting the War US uses aggressive strategy to win General Stephen Kearny easily captured towns hoping to gain control of California Rebels forced Mexican government to sign treaty turning over CA on June 14, 1846 ~ became Republic of California General Winfield Scott landed at the Gulf and led forces inland to Mexico City in Sept. 1847 Within months, US forces had captured NM and CA, Mexicos capital fell government Results of the War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Signed in 1848 Mexico forced to turn over to the US a huge tract of land (Mexican Cession) US paid Mexico $15 million and drop the $3 million damages Gadsden Purchase 1853 Clarified the treaty boundary and transferred more land to the US Polk pleased, not all Americans proud of war
Debate continues today over justification Chapter 9 Review Write the Question and the Answer Chapter 9 Section 3 7. Why was the Mexican government angry about the annexation of Texas? 8. What controversial action did President Polk take that may have resulted in the war with Mexico? 9. How did the United States take advantage of its military victories over Mexico? Write the Question and the
Answer President James Polk strongly supported the territorial expansion of the United States. To enlarge [the United States] is to extend the dominions of peace over additional territories and increasing millions...my duty [is] to assert and maintain ...the right of the United States to that portion of our territory which lies beyond the Rocky Mountains...The world beholds the peaceful triumphs of the industry of our emigrants...The jurisdiction of our laws...should be extended over them in the distant regions which they have selected for their homes ~ President James K. Polk, Inaugural Address 10.What does Polk see as his duty?
Chapter 9 Review Write the Question and answer The whole country, from San Francisco to Los Angeles, and from the sea shore to the base of the San Sierra Nevada resounds with the Francisco sordid cry of gold, GOLD, GOLD! while the field is left half-planted, the house half-built, and everything neglected but the manufacture of shovels and pickaxes. ~ San Francisco Californian, May 29, 1848 12.What does the whole
country refer to? A. The Sierra Nevada B. The United States C. farmers D. much of California Los Angeles
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