Chapter 5 Writing Process Phase 2: Research, Organize, Compose

Chapter 5 Writing Process Phase 2: Research, Organize, Compose

Chapter 5 Writing Process Phase 2: Research, Organize, Compose Business Communication: Process and Product, 6e Mary Ellen Guffey Copyright 2008 Formal Research Methods Access electronically Search manually Investigate primary sources Experiment

scientifically Mary Ellen Guffey, Business The Internet Databases Books, articles Other secondary sources Interviews Surveys Tests with experimental and control groups Ch. 5, Informal Research and Idea Generation Look in the company files.

Talk with your boss. Interview the target audience. Conduct an informal survey. Brainstorm for ideas. Develop a cluster diagram. Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Organizing Data Listing and outlining Grouping ideas into patterns Direct pattern for receptive audiences Indirect pattern for

unreceptive audiences Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Organizing Data: Creating Cluster Diagrams Paid gym membership Smokingcessation programs Gifts and premiums Financial incentives Peer

mentors New menu in cafeteria Improving employee health Seminars and workshops Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Flex time for workouts Guest speakers Ch. 5,

Organizing Data: Making Outlines Define the main topic (purpose of message) in the title. Divide the main topic into three to five major components. If needed, combine small components into one larger category. Break the components into subpoints. Dont put a single item under a major component; integrate it with the main item above it or reorganize. Strive to make each component exclusive (no overlaps). Use details, illustrations, and evidence to Mary Ellen Guffey, Business support

subpoints. Ch. 5, Organizi ng Data: Alphanu meric Outline Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Organizi ng Data: Decimal Outline Mary Ellen Guffey, Business

Ch. 5, Ideas into Patterns: Direct for Receptiv e Audience s Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Ideas into Patterns: Indirect for Unrecept

ive Audience s Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Creating Effective Sentences Recognize phrases and clauses. Clauses have subjects and verbs; phrases do not. Independent clauses are complete; dependent clauses are not. Phrases and dependent clauses cannot function as sentences. Independent clause: They were eating pizza.

Dependent clause: that they wanted to return Mary Guffey, Business Ch. 5, forEllen a refund C Squared Studios/Photodisk/Getty Images Effective Sentences: Use active-voice verbs for most sentences. Active and Passive Voice Examples: We do not provide cash refunds. The manager overlooked the deadline.

Use passive-voice verbs to deemphasize the performer and/or to be tactful. Examples: Cash refunds are not provided (by us). The deadline was overlooked (by the manager). Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Effective Sentences: Avoid dangling phrases. Dangling Modifiers Keep phrases close to the words they describe.

Not this: Rescuers saved a dog from a car that had a broken leg. But this: Rescuers saved a dog with a broken leg from a car. Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Effective Paragraphs: Focus only one topic in a Discuss paragraph. Group similar ideas together.

Paragraphs may be composed of three kinds of sentences: Main sentence: expresses the primary idea of the paragraph. Supporting sentence: illustrates, explains, or strengthens the primary idea. Limiting sentence: opposes the primary idea by suggesting a negative or contrasting thought; may precede or follow the main sentence. Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Build Coherence, Link Ideas

Sustain the key idea by repeating or rephrasing it. Our philosophy holds that every customer is really a guest. All new employees to our theme parks are trained to treat guests as VIPs. These VIPs are never told what they can or cannot do. Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Build Coherence, Link Ideas Use a pronoun as a link to an antecedent: All new park employees receive a two-week orientation. They learn

that every staffer has a vital role in preparing for the show. This training includes how to maintain enthusiasm. Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, Build Coherence, Link Ideas Dovetail sentences. Connect the beginning of each new sentence with a word from the end of the previous sentence. New hosts and hostesses learn about the theme park and its facilities. These facilities include telephones, food services, bathrooms, and attractions, as well as the

location of offices. Knowledge of administrative offices and the internal workings of the company, such as whos in administration, ensures that staffers will be able to serve guests fully. Serving guests, Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5, of course, is our No. 1 priority. Use Transitional Expressions To Add or To Show To Clarify additionally Time or Order

after again before for instance also earlier I mean To Show Cause and Effect accordingly To

Contradict To Contrast actually as opposed to as a result but consequently however at the same time by contrast

Strengthen Mary Ellen Guffey, Business for example Ch. 5, End Mary Ellen Guffey, Business Ch. 5,

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