Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Watch the Crash Course video and answer the following questions: What was the Progressive Era? What was Muckraking? What was The Jungle and what did it lead to? Why did workers organize unions? What did Ford do for his workers? What was the labor problem of industrialization? What was the purpose of the 17th Amendment? What was the court case Plessey v. Ferguson? What type of problems did progressives try to fix in the early 1900s that we try to fix today? Bell Work 4.1 Prt. 1 What was the Progressive Era and what issues were they

concerned with? Who are muckrakers and what types of issues did they write about? Who were the Industrial Workers of the World and what did they do? How did the South limit voting rights of African Americans? Define Plessy v. Ferguson. What was Booker T. Washingtons stance on gaining equality? Crash Course The Progressive Era

Look at the picture (child labor) at the top of the interactive lecture and answer the questions posed at the top of the page Task focus: bell Work Bell work/Task Focus 4.1

After watching the video on the Homestead Strike: describe why the workers were going on strike, the events that took place during the strike, and what was the out come of the strike? Were the workers justified in going on strike? Place in your bellwork notebook Examine the effect of innovations in technology and transportation on American society (T&R) Evaluate changes in business

organization that led to the growth of an industrial economy (CU) Student learner Outcomes Chapter 4 Labor and Progressivism 4.1 WORKERS AND LABOR UNIONS

Nations' economy becoming more industrialized Growth of urban areas Increase in immigration Working conditions:

Long working hours: The average hours worked: 60 Low wages: The average salary: $450 a year Dangerous working conditions No social security or unemployment Conditions of the Workers Child Labor very common

Children as young as 5 have to work for their families survival No education and no childhood Would never make it above the poverty level Labor Unions arose because of the working conditions Organization of workers formed to protect interests of its members Craft unions skilled workers who practiced a specific craft Trade unions less skilled workers

The Unions The Knights of Labor Formed to create one union of factory workers, farmers, shopkeepers, and office workers Induced African Americans to join unions Supported Reforms: Equal pay for equal work Eight-hour work day End child labor

declined and disappeared in 1890s The American Federation of Labor Craft union lead by Samuel Gompers Issues: working hours, wages, working conditions Used strikes and boycotts Believed in Collective Bargaining Negotiate as a group not an

individual Forced closed shop workplaces Employers had to hire only union members The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), members of which are commonly termed "Wobblies An international labor union that was founded in 1905 in Chicago, Illinois in the United States of America. The union combines general unionism with industrial unionism, as it is a general union whose members are further organized within the industry of their employment

Industrial Worker of the World Eugene Debs one of most influential union leaders in history Organized American Railway Union Lead the Pullman strike Ran for president several times as American

Socialist Party Role Child during the time period we are discussing Audience Parent Samuel Gompers Workers

4.1 RAFT Form Topic Letter Write a letter to your parents explaining why you should not have to work in a

factory and what the conditions are like in your factory. Speech Why all workers should join labor unions. What reasons unions should exist Hated unions Forced employees to sigh contracts saying they

wont join unions Some places unions workers on blacklists (list of workers employers would refuse to hire) Lockouts not allow employees to return to work During strikes, employers would hire scabs replacement worker Employer Response to Unions Employers worked with government when it

came to unions Government would grant companies injunctions court order that forbade strikes because law violation or threatened public interests if all else failed employers would use violence or intimidation to deal with labor issues The Great Strike

Railroad workers strike because of wage cuts Violence throughout the Midwest and eastern U.S. President sends federal troops to put down protest Showed employers that they could appeal to federal government for help Haymarket Riot Seven police officers killed during protest turned public opinion against unions Saw them as anarchies and violent

Strikes and Confrontations The Homestead Strike Among steel workers at Carnegie Steel Carnegie was in Europe when is workers when on strike because of his partner Henry Frick Frick hired a private police force the Pinkertons Shootout left several dead or wounded The Pullman Strike Pullman fired three labor representatives Closed plant down

American Railway Union and Eugene Debs boycott Pullman cars Court injunction against the union set a precedence for owners appealing to government to end strikes What was the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire? Know Want to Know 1-2 Topics

1-2 Topics Learned 5-8 Topics AP Video KWL chart: American Presidents intro. Video Watch the video clip on The Jungle What did Upton Sinclair write

about in his novel The Jungle? Explain the laws that were passed as a result of The Jungle Bell work 4.2 Part 1 Analyze the following Political Cartoons. Identify and describe key elements present in the cartoons.

Summarize what the overall message of the cartoon. What era in American History is this cartoon related to? Bellwork 4.2 4.2 PROGRESSIVISM Era in which both government and citizens called

for reform in business, politics, and society as a whole Some enjoyed wealth and prosperity Immigrants and poor still live and work under harsh conditions Progressive Era Writers who exposed abuse in government and big business Theodore Roosevelt gave them their names

Muckrakers: Lincoln Steffens political corruption Ida Tarbell abuse of Standard Oil Upton Sinclair The Jungle Uncovered the truth about U.S. meat packing industry Lead to the creation of meat inspection programs Muckrakers Jacob Riis drew attention to terrible living

conditions in tenement Jane Addams opened Hull House in Chicago Center which poor immigrants and workers could get help Launch pad into investigations into economic, political, and social conditions Help lay the foundation for future settlement houses: houses immigrant families Social Reformers

There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white it would be dosed with borax and glycerin, and dumped into the hoppers, and made over again for home consumption. There would be meat that had tumbled out on the floor, in the dirt and sawdust, where the workers had tramped and spit uncounted billions of consumption germs. There would be meat stored in great piles in rooms; and the water from leaky roofs would drip over it, and thousands of rats would race about on it. It was too dark in these storage places to see well, but a man could run his hand over these piles of meat and sweep off handfuls of the dried dung of rats. These rats were nuisances, and the packers would put poisoned bread out for them; they would die, and then rats, bread, and meat would go into the hoppers together. This is no fairy story and no joke; the meat would be shoveled into carts, and the man who did the shoveling would not trouble to lift out a rat even when

he saw one there were things that went into the sausage in comparison with which a poisoned rat was a tidbit. There was no place for the men to wash their hands before they ate their dinner, and so they made a practice of washing them in the water that was to be ladled into the sausage. There were the butt-ends of smoked meat, and the scraps of corned beef, and all the odds and ends of the waste of the plants, that would be dumped into old barrels in the cellar and left there. Under the system of rigid economy which the packers enforced, there were some jobs that it only paid to do once in a long time, and among these was the cleaning out of the waste barrels. Every spring they did it; and in the barrels would be dirt and rust and old nails and stale water and cartload after cartload of it would be taken up and dumped into the hoppers with fresh meat, and sent out to the public's breakfast. Some of it they would make into "smoked" sausage but as the smoking took time, and was therefore expensive, they would call upon their chemistry department, and preserve it with borax and color it with gelatin to make it brown. All of their sausage came out of the same bowl, but when they came to wrap it they

would stamp some of it "special," and for this they would charge two cents more a pound. The Jungle By: Upton Sinclair 1. How does this excerpt make you feel about government regulation of commercial products at the turn of the century? 2. How are food and drugs regulated today to keep these things from happening? 3. Why was it necessary for people to read about the meatpacking industry? HOT Questions

After you the excerpt from The Jungle write a 5 sentence summary explaining why Muckrakers were important to society. Then create two level two questions and one level three question about muckrakers or Upton Sinclairs book. Be sure to answer them Summary and question creation

Movement to limit and then eliminate alcohol 1919 Congress ratified the 18th Amendment Prohibited the making, selling, or transporting of any alcoholic beverage in the U.S. Later referred to as Prohibition Failure/Was repealed by the 21st Amendment Caused an increase in organized crime.

Mafia/cops sell illegal alcohol Bootlegger: Sold illegal alcohol The Temperance Movement Womens Suffrage Movement Womens right to vote Early movement at Seneca Falls Convention 1848 Susan B. Anthony most

recognized Established the North American Womens Suffrage Association 1920 Congress passed the 19th Amendment Womens Suffrage Read thought the following impression words and create a short descriptive passage or story concerning what content you think will be

covered in the lesson today. Impression Words: Bull Moose Party, Teddy Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, split in the Republican Party, Eugene Debs, Socialist Party, Woodrow Wilson Bellwork 4.2 Part 2 Theodore Roosevelt Became the youngest man to be

inaugurated president Progressive president who pushed for reform Felt many monopolies were harmful Competitive, strong willed, energetic Social Darwinist who thought that only the intelligent could become wealthy Was a conservationist (teddy bear)

Coal Mine Strike 1902 Roosevelt called both sides to White House Used arbitration (a third impartial judgment on a dispute) Breaking up Trusts Brought suit against Northern Securities Company for violating the Sherman Anti-trust Act Raised as a reformer; went after other trusts Roosevelt hand picked his friend Taft to run for

president in 1908 Taft won Was not the reformer Roosevelt was but did change some issues Mann-Elkins Act expanded the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate telephone and telegraph rates Brought down more trusts than Roosevelt William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, and The Election of 1912

Eugene Debs runs for president under the Socialist Party Taft could not gain full support of Progressives in the Republican party Party split in 1912 election Taft Republican Party Split the Roosevelt Progressive Party/Bull Moose Party Republican vote Woodrow Wilson Democrat Party Won the election The Election of

1912 Watch the video on Wilsons presidency and answer the following questions: As a result of the Underwood Tariff Act the 16 Amendment was passed. What did this do? What was the 17th Amendment? How did initiative, referendum, and recall give voters more power? What did the Federal Reserve Act give the government the power to do? What was the importance of the Clayton Antitrust Act?

Bell Work 4.2: Video Clip Wilson opposed both big business and big government Federal Reserve Act established a federal reserve to oversee banking in the U.S.; gave government greater control over money circulation and prevent bank failures Clayton Antitrust Act made strikes, peaceful picketing, and boycotting legal

Government can no longer use antitrust laws to up down strikes or break up unions Referendum allowing citizens to vote directly on proposed laws and policies Initiative allowing for citizens of the state to force a vote on a particular issue Recall holding special elections to remove corrupt officials from office before their terms have expired Secret Ballot allowing individuals to vote secretly removing fear if voting against certain

candidates Reforms in State Government Federal Trade Commission: One of President Woodrow Wilsons major acts against trusts. Trusts and trustbusting were significant political concerns during the Progressive Era. This commission was authorized to issue cease and desist orders to large corporations to curb unfair trade practices. The Pure food and Drug Act: initially concerned with ensuring products were labeled correctly. Later efforts

were made to outlaw certain products that were not safe, followed by efforts to outlaw products which were safe but not effective The Volstead Act: The legislation that made alcohol illegal; carried out the intent of the 18th Amendment Sixteenth Amendment (1913) Seventeenth Amendment (1913) Eighteenth Amendment (1919) Established that the federal

government could collect a graduated income tax Established that the Senate would be directly elected by citizens as opposed to other citizens Prohibition of the sale, consumption, and manufacturing of alcohol Established womens suffrage Nineteenth Amendment (1920) Constitutional Amendments

During the Progressive Period Take out your questions that you created after reading Upton Sinclairs The Jungle If you were absent you should use this time to read the excerpt Bellwork Explain the ways that segregation (separation of the races) was used in the

Southern states at the turn of the 20th century Task Focus Copy the following questions into your bell work and answer them in complete sentences while watching the video. What was the purpose of the character of Jim Crow? Define the term Era of Jim Crow.

What obstacles did African Americans have to overcome? How? What group symbolized white supremacy? Bellwork 4.3 4.3 AFRICAN AMERICANS OF THE PROGRESSIVE PERIOD Civil War 1861-1865. Reconstruction 1865-1877: many legal advances for African Americans (i.e., 13, 14, 15 Amendments; African Americans elected to office in South).

But in 1876, North pulls its troops out and white-supremacist Democrats take over. Result: Most African Americans became sharecroppers. Laws put in place to prevent African Americans from voting (e.g., poll tax, literacy). KKK had support of local officials and terrorized anyone who voted Republican. Lynching became a widespread form of terrorism against African Americans, especially those who gained an economic/ social foothold. Jim Crow segregation: separate=equal upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Against this historical context, two leaders emerged: Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBois.

African Americans in the Progressive Era Watch the video and answer the following questions: What was Woodrow Wilsons stand on segregation? Who was Booker T. Washington and what was the Tuskegee Institute? How did B.T.W. feel that AA could earn respect? Who was W.E.B. Dubois and what were his ideas on AA rights? What caused the Progressive era to fade away? Why?

4.3: video clip During the video: What was the objective of Prohibition? What was a speakeasy? After watching: What was the overall outcome of Prohibition (At least a three sentence response) Bell Work: Prohibition Video Clip

After Civil War, African Americans faced racism and discrimination Disenfranchisement deny a certain group of people the right to vote 13th Amendment-abolished slavery 14th Amendment gave AA citizenship 15th Amendment gave AA the right to vote Disenfranchisement of African Americas

States did not follow the 15th Amendment Ways states stopped AA from voting: Literacy tests had to prove you can read before voting; AA had not formal education so they could not read Poll tax citizens of that state to pay a special tax to vote; AA too poor to pay Grandfather Clause Allowed for poor and illiterate whites to still be able to vote Anyone who votes in past elections or ancestors who

voted were exempt from the above laws Segregation separation of races De jure segregation separation based on law Plessy v. Ferguson Homer Plessy was jailed for stilling in an all whites section of a railway car. He sued. Supreme Court said that segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities and services were equal. separate but equal De facto segregation not by law; evolved due to economic and social factors More evident in the North

Segregation Jim Crow Laws laws that established racism Meant that blacks were segregated from schools, restaurants, hospitals, public transpiration Great Migration period when thousands of AA left the south in search of industrial jobs created by the war Former slave Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama

Train AA in a trade to they can achieve economies freedom and escape the oppression suffered by uneducated blacks If AA excelled in trades requiring manual labor, whites would eventually treat them as equals Atlanta Compromise Booker T. Washington First black Ph.D. graduate from Harvard

Disagreed with Booker T. Washington Argued blacks should pursue occupations in the humanities and in white-collar fields Blacks must be politically and socially active to gain equality Help fund National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) W.E.B. Du Bois Fearless advocate of civil rights movement

One of the important AA women of her day Campaigned against the railway cars, participated in womens suffrage parades, helped form NAACP, fought against lynching Ida Wells-Barnett Born Jamaican Important figure during Progressive Era Back to Africa movement Blacks leaving the U.S. to find a homeland in Africa Never came about

Helped give sense of pride AA never felt before Marcus Garvey Worth a 100 pt. Quiz Grade!!! ROLE AUDIENCE African American A friend from during the another city/Up

Progressive Era north (See the last graphic organizer for 4.3 and choose one of the influential people) FORM TOPIC

Letter Rap Poem Song State who you are You must explain how each topic discussed in the section has effected your life during the progressive era. You must include

Disenfranchisement, the Amendments, segregation, Plessey V. Ferguson, Jim Crow Laws, and the impact of the other people (besides the person you are writing as) 4.3 RAFT PAPER

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