Chapter 4, Part 2 of 2: Exceptions to The Rule That Hearsay ...

Chapter 4, Part 2 of 2: Exceptions to The Rule That Hearsay ...

CHAPTER 4, PART C: EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULE THAT HEARSAY IS INADMISSIBLE Prof. JANICKE 2019 RULE 802 EXCLUDES MOST HEARSAY BUT THERE ARE EXCEPTIONS CONTEXT: THE EVIDENCE IS HEARSAY, BUT IS ALLOWED IN ANYWAY 2019

Chap. 4, part C 2 TWO GROUPS OF EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULE THAT HEARSAY EVIDENCE IS INADMISSIBLE GROUP OF EXCEPTIONS THAT APPLY REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE DECLARANT IS AVAILABLE AS TRIAL WITNESS [RULE 803] THESE ARE THOUGHT TO BE EXTRA RELIABLE FORMS OF EVIDENCE GROUP OF EXCEPTIONS THAT APPLY ONLY IF DECLARANT IS UNAVAILABLE AS TRIAL WITNESS [RULE 804]

2019 Chap. 4, part C 3 UNRESTRICTED EXCEPTIONS KEEP IN MIND - WE DONT NEED ANY EXCEPTION TO THE EXCLUSIONARY HEARSAY RULE (R. 802) IF WE ALREADY HAVE A DEFINITIONAL EXCEPTION R801(d) E.G.: STATEMENT IS THAT OF THE OPPOSING PARTY OR HIS EMPLOYEE, ETC. 2019

Chap. 4, part C 5 SO - WE ARE HERE TALKING ABOUT STATEMENTS, WHERE THE DECLARANT WAS ONE OF OUR OWN PEOPLE, or A NON-PARTY 2019 Chap. 4, part C 6

(1) PRESENT SENSE IMPRESSION TESTIMONY THAT - DECLARANT SAID SOMETHING ABOUT WHAT SHE WAS PERCEIVING AT THAT VERY TIME, OR IMMEDIATELY THEREAFTER 2019 Chap. 4, part C 7 EXAMPLE WITNESS: HE SAID I SEE THE TRUCK IS HEADING NORTHBOUND OFFERED TO HELP ESTABLISH THAT

THE TRUCK WAS HEADING NORTH A STATEMENT, OFFERED TO PROVE THE TRUTH OF THE STATEMENT IT IS HEARSAY BUT, IT IS ADMISSIBLE 2019 Chap. 4, part C 8 EXAMPLE WITNESS: I SAID HE IS COMING STRAIGHT THIS WAY OFFERED TO SHOW THE PERSON

WAS APPROACHING THE SPEAKER IS HEARSAY BUT, IS ADMISSIBLE 2019 Chap. 4, part C 9 EXAMPLE WITNESS: SHE SAID ITS HOT IN HERE OFFERED TO HELP ESTABLISH THE ROOM WAS WARM IS HEARSAY

BUT IS ADMISSIBLE 2019 Chap. 4, part C 10 CAVEAT: POLICE REPORTS (RECORDS) REMAIN INADMISSIBLE BUT: POLICEPERSON CAN TESTIFY THAT A CITIZEN REPORTED HIS HOUSE WAS AT THAT VERY MOMENT BEING BURGLARIZED (DECLARANT IS A NON-PARTY

PRESENT SENSE IMPRESSION HERE) 2019 Chap. 4, part C 11 (2) EXCITED UTTERANCE TESTIMONY THAT - DECLARANT SAID SOMETHING ABOUT A STARTLING EVENT, WHILE UNDER THE EXCITEMENT CAUSED BY THE EVENT OVERLAPS WITH (1), BUT HAS LONGER TIME FRAME -- THE EXCITEMENT MAY LAST FOR HOURS TYPE (1) WAS FOR ANY KIND OF

EVENT; TYPE (2) HAS TO BE STARTLING 2019 Chap. 4, part C 12 EXAMPLES OF EXCITED UTTERANCES: TESTIMONY: JACK SAID TO ME: THE ROOF COLLAPSED! IT HAD HAPPENED THREE HOURS BEFORE. HE WAS VERY UPSET. TESTIMONY: JILL SAID TO ME: THE TRUCK PLOWED INTO THAT

CAR TWENTY MINUTES AGO. 2019 Chap. 4, part C 13 DECLARANT MUST HAVE PERSONALLY OBSERVED THE STARTLING EVENT THE JUDGE MUST FIND THAT AS A FOUNDATION FACT; AND THAT THE DECLARANT WAS IN FACT STARTLED HOW? USUALLY ASSUMED FROM THE NATURE OF THE STATEMENT 2019

Chap. 4, part C 14 CASES Nutall Arnold 2019 Chap. 4, part C 15 (3) THEN EXISTING MENTAL,

EMOTIONAL, PHYSICAL CONDITION OF DECLARANT COULD BE VIEWED AS A SUBSET OF (1), PRESENT SENSE IMPRESSION, BUT FOCUSING ON INTERNAL FEELINGS AND THOUGHTS MANY SITUATIONS CAN BE ANALYZED UNDER EITHER (3) OR (1), WITH SAME RESULT 2019 Chap. 4, part C 16 ** THIS IS WHAT WE USE FOR

TESTIMONY ON NON-PARTY DECLARATIONS OF INTENT, OFFERED TO HELP ESTABLISH LATER CONFORMING CONDUCT ** HE SAID HE INTENDED TO DO IT; THEREFORE, A LITTLE MORE LIKELY THAT HE DID DO IT 2019 Chap. 4, part C 17 EXAMPLES OF (3) TESTIMONY: HE SAID TO ME, MY

HEAD HURTS [WOULD ALSO FIT UNDER (1)] TESTIMONY: I TOLD HIM, I AM REALLY DEPRESSED [WOULD ALSO FIT UNDER (1)] TESTIMONY: SHE SAID, I PLAN TO LEAVE HOUSTON ON FRIDAY ADMISSIBLE TO SHOW THE PLAN AND TO SHOW THAT SHE LEFT ON FRIDAY! [WOULD NOT FIT UNDER (1)] 2019 Chap. 4, part C 18

THE DRAFTERS INTENT WAS TO ADOPT THE RULE OF THE HILLMON CASE IN THAT CASE, THE EVIDENCE OF INTENT WAS TREATED AS CREATING SOME DEGREE OF LIKELIHOOD THAT THE INTENT WAS CARRIED OUT: 2019 Chap. 4, part C 19 CASES Hillmon

Pheaster 2019 Chap. 4, part C 20 803(3) INCLUDES STATEMENTS OF INTENT THAT INVOLVE ADDITIONAL PERSONS (JOINT PLAN) AS IN HILLMON BUT NOT A STATEMENT INVOLVING ONLY A THIRD PERSONS PLAN OR CONDUCT >>>

2019 Chap. 4, part C 21 EXAMPLES - TESTIMONY: SHE SAID TO ME, I FEAR JACK IS GOING TO SHOOT ME! DIARY ENTRY: I FEAR JACK IS GOING TO SHOOT ME! THESE ARE STATEMENTS OF SOMEONE ELSES STATE OF MIND, NOT THE DECLARANTS ALL ARE INADMISSIBLE

2019 Chap. 4, part C 22 BELIEFS ABOUT FACTS ARE NOT ALLOWED UNDER THIS EXCEPTION OUT-OF-COURT DECLARATIONS OF BELIEF ARE USUALLY NOT ALLOWED IN FOR THEIR TRUTH TESTIMONY: X SAID TO ME, I THINK JACK DID IT. DIARY ENTRY: JILL SEEMS TO BE MAKING A LOT OF MONEY THESE

2019 Chap. 4, part C DAYS 23 FURTHER EXAMPLE TESTIMONY: X SAID HE WAS GOING TO HEAD FOR NEW YORK, IN ORDER TO GET AWAY FROM THE GANGSTERS WHO HAD BEEN PURSUING HIM. HE FELT THEY WOULD KILL HIM FOR SURE IF HE STAYED HERE. [WHITE TEXT IS ADMISSIBLE; ORANGE TEXT MIGHT BE ADMISSIBLE AS EXCITED

OR PRESENT SENSE; GREEN TEXT IS INADMISSIBLE, GOES BEYOND DECLARANTS PLAN AND MOTIVATION] 2019 Chap. 4, part C 24 (4) STATEMENTS TO PHYSICIANS OFTEN OVERLAPS WITH (1) AND (3), BUT COVERS A WIDER GROUP OF STMTS. THAN MERE PHYSICAL, MENTAL, EMOTIONAL CONDITION HERE, ONSET INFO IS INCLUDED TESTIMONY: I HEARD HIM SAY TO THE

DOCTOR: THIS PAIN STARTED LAST MONTH GENERAL CAUSE INFO IS INCLUDED 2019 WITNESS TESTIMONY: I SAID TO THE DOCTOR: IT BEGAN WHEN I ATE THOSE Chap. 4, part C EGGS 25 DIVIDING LINE: NO STATEMENTS AS TO FAULT, UNLESS NEEDED MEDICALLY

WIT. (DOCTOR) TESTIFIES: HE TOLD ME IT BEGAN WHEN JACK HIT ME WITH A HAMMER WILL HAVE TO BE REPHRASED TO ELIMINATE JACKS FAULT 2019 Chap. 4, part C 26 EXAMPLE: WIT. TESTIFIES: I HEARD HIM SAY TO THE DOCTOR, IT BEGAN AFTER I ATE THOSE EGGS THAT WERE BAD, WHICH

IS PRETTY USUAL FOR THE MAIN STREET DINER THE GREEN PART IS UNNECESSARY FOR DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT, AND WILL BE KEPT OUT; ORANGE TEXT IS BORDERLINE; WHITE TEXT IS OK 2019 Chap. 4, part C 27 KEY FOUNDATION FACT FOR (4): STATEMENT MUST HAVE BEEN MADE FOR PURPOSES OF DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT

THUS A VICTIMS STATEMENT TO A DOCTOR HIRED BY POLICE TO FIND OUT WHAT HAPPENED, OR WHO THE CULPRIT IS, WOULD NOT QUALIFY STATEMENTS DURING AN INSURANCE PHYSICAL WOULD NOT QUALIFY 2019 Chap. 4, part C 28 PROBLEMS/CASES Blake

2019 Chap. 4, part C 29 (5) PAST RECOLLECTION RECORDED DIFFERENT FROM MEMORY REFRESHING HERE THE WITNESS TESTIFIES HER MEMORY CANNOT BE REFRESHED BUT IT WAS FRESH AT ONE TIME AND SHE (OR A HELPER) MADE A RECORD OF IT AT THAT TIME 2019

Chap. 4, part C 30 MECHANICS OF USING EXCEPTION (5) LAY FOUNDATION: WITNESS CANT NOW RECALL WITNESS AT ONE TIME COULD RECALL WITNESS CAUSED RECORD TO BE MADE

IDENTIFY THE RECORD RECORD CAN THEN BE READ IN, BUT THE DOCUMENT CANT BE INTRODUCED EXCEPT BY OTHER SIDE 2019 Chap. 4, part C 31 (6) BUSINESS RECORDS NEED NOT BE COMMERCIAL; ANY REGULAR ACTIVITY WILL QUALIFY CHURCH BOOK CLUB

ONLY APPLIES TO EVENTS OCCURRING AND OBSERVED INSIDE THE BUSINESS FACT REPORTS FROM OUTSIDE ARE NOT COVERED AND HAVE TO BE MASKED OUT 2019 Chap. 4, part C 32 FOUNDATION FOR (6) IS COMPLEX FOUNDATION NEEDED:

1. REGULAR ACTIVITY GOING ON 2. THIS DOC. MADE IN THE REGULAR COURSE OF IT 3. MADE AT OR NEAR THE TIME OF EVENTS LISTED 4. MADE BY (OR VIA) A PERSON WITH ACTUAL KNOWLEDGE 5. WAS THE REGULAR PRACTICE TO KEEP RECORDS OF THIS TYPE 2019 Chap. 4, part C 33

CAVEAT: NONE OF THIS IS NECESSARY FOR OPPOSING PARTYS RECORDS THOSE ARE NOT HEARSAY; NEED NO EXCEPTION EXCEPTION (6) IS USED FOR NONPARTY RECORDS OR PARTYS OWN RECORDS 2019 Chap. 4, part C 34 PRONGS (3) AND (4) COULD BE DIFFICULT TO PROVE IF CHALLENGED

UNTIL 2000, LAWYERS OFTEN USED THE HABIT/ROUTINE PRACTICE RULE [R406] WIT. DOESNT REALLY KNOW WHAT HAPPENED ON THIS TRANSACTION WIT. CAN SAY WHAT THE REGULAR PRACTICE OF THE BUSINESS IS RE. MAKING RECORDS 2019 Chap. 4, part C 35 AFFIDAVIT of AUTHENTICITY FEDERAL RULE 902 (11) ALLOWS

AFFIDAVIT PRACTICE TEXAS RULE 902 (10) IS SIMILAR THESE ARE AUTHENTICITY RULES, BUT THEY ARE REFERENCED IN 803(6) AS O.K. FOUNDATION METHOD TO REMOVE HEARSAY PROBLEMS 2019 Chap. 4, part C 36 THE TEXAS RULE IS MORE HONEST FEDERAL RULE SPECIFIES THAT THE AFFIANT SWEAR THE ENTRIES WERE

MADE BY A PERSON WITH KNOWLEDGE, ETC. HOW WOULD HE KNOW? TEXAS RULE SPECIFIES THAT THE AFFIANT SWEAR ITS THE USUAL PRACTICE TO HAVE THE ENTRIES MADE THAT WAY 2019 Chap. 4, part C 37 CASE Petrocelli

2019 Chap. 4, part C 38 (7) ABSENCE OF A BUSINESS ENTRY SERVES AS PROOF THAT THE EVENT DID NOT HAPPEN REQUIRES SHOWING OF THE USUAL PRACTICE OF THE ORGANIZATION 2019 Chap. 4, part C

39 (8) OFFICIAL RECORDS and (9) VITAL STATISTICS RECORDS ARE ALL GENERALLY OK, EXCEPT FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT RECORDS IN CRIMINAL CASES OTHER KINDS OF OFFICIAL RECORDS ARE O.K. IN CIVIL AND CRIMINAL CASES 2019 Chap. 4, part C 40

THREE TYPES OF RECORDS FIT UNDER (8) 1. ONES THAT RECITE THE GENERAL ACTIVITIES OF THE OFFICE E.G., DOCUMENTS DESCRIBING: PROCEDURES FOR HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION BIDDING HOW THE CENSUS IS TAKEN HOW THE I.R.S. CONDUCTS AN AUDIT 2019 Chap. 4, part C

41 2. ONES THAT RECITE MATTERS OBSERVED PURSUANT TO DUTY IMPOSED BY LAW. E.G., REPORTS ON: REAL ESTATE APPRAISALS DONE BUILDING INSPECTIONS PERFORMED HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION BIDS RECEIVED PARTS OF A DEATH RECORD [PREVIOUSLY DISCUSSED IN CLASS]

2019 Chap. 4, part C 42 3. FACTUAL FINDINGS FROM INVESTIGATIONS E.G., REPORTS ON: NATL. TRANSP. SAFETY BOARD AIR DISASTER INVESTIGATIONS CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL INVESTIGATION OF EPIDEMICS POLICE BALLISTICS INVESTIGATIONS (CIVIL ONLY) POLICE FINGERPRINT CHECKS (CIVIL

ONLY) 2019 Chap. 4, part C 43 TYPES OF PUBLIC RECORDS THAT FIT UNDER (9) BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES FOR THESE PARTICULAR EVENTS, THE PUBLIC RECORDER OFFICE NEED NOT HAVE ANY FIRST-HAND KNOWLEDGE OF THE FACTS RECORDED REPORTS MADE TO THE OFFICE BY

CITIZENS ARE OK HERE 2019 Chap. 4, part C 44 PROBLEMS / CASES NORCON 4N 2019 Chap. 4, part C 45

BLOCKAGE OF POLICE RECORDS DOES NOT APPLY IN THE PARTS OF CRIMINAL CASES WHERE RULES OF EVID. DO NOT APPLY SENTENCING GRAND JURY PROCEEDINGS HEARING ON REVOCATION OF PROBATION BAIL PROCEEDINGS WARRANTS [R 1101(d)(3) -- FED. RULES INAPPLICABLE; NO HEARSAY RULE, SO NO EXCEPTION NEEDED] 2019 Chap. 4, part C

46 IN TEXAS COURTS THE RESTRICTIONS ON POLICE REPORTS ARE LIKEWISE NOT APPLICABLE WHERE THE RULES IN GENERAL ARE NOT APPLICABLE; E.G.: SENTENCING Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 37.07, 3(a)

GRAND JURIES [R 101(d)(1)] HABEAS CORPUS BAIL SEARCH WARRANTS 2019 Chap. 4, part C

47 CHURCH AND FAMILY RECORDS [803(11-13)] TREATED MUCH LIKE PUBLIC RECORDS UNDER (9) SIMILAR LIMITED SUBJECT MATTER BIRTHS DEATHS DIVORCES BAPTISMS ETC. 2019 Chap. 4, part C

48 (18) LEARNED TREATISES FOUNDATION: ACKNOWLEDGED AS AUTHORITATIVE BY TESTIMONY OF A WITNESS PROCEDURE: CAN THEN READ IN RELEVANT PASSAGES CANT PUT THE BOOK IN 2019 Chap. 4, part C

49 (19-21) REPUTATION TOPICS ALLOWED RE.: PERSONAL OR FAMILY HISTORY -- WE ALL SAID FRANK IS JOHNS NEPHEW BOUNDARIES -- FOLKS IN THESE PARTS ALWAYS SAID THE RANCH ENDED AT THE OLD OAK TREE CHARACTER -- IN LIMITED INSTANCES, AS WE HAVE SEEN 2019 Chap. 4, part C

50 (22) JUDGMENTS OF FELONY CONVICTIONS ADMISSIBLE TO PROVE ANY UNDERLYING ESSENTIAL FACT ONLY JUDGMENTS NOT ARRESTS NOT INDICTMENTS NOT VERDICTS 2019 Chap. 4, part C 51

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