Chapter 38-39

Chapter 38-39

Phylum Arthropoda Typical Arthropod Structures Means Joint-foot Includes lobsters, crabs, spiders, insects, millipedes, & centipedes Bodies w/segments containing appendages any structure that grows out of the body. Segments include: head, thorax, & abdomen.

Exoskeleton made of chitin Bilateral symmetry w/cephalization Must molt (shed exoskeleton) to grow. Arthropod Respiration Efficient respiratory system Three types: Gills used to exchange gas in water Tracheal tubes branching networks of hollow air passages where air enters through spiracles on the thorax and abdomen.

Book lungs air-filled chambers that contain leaf-like plates. Arthropod Senses Very acute senses Use antennae for sound and odor communication with pheromones. Accurate vision is important. Most have a compound eye with many lenses and several simple eyes that is only one lens. Well developed nervous system w/double

ventral nerve cord, anterior brain and several ganglia. Other Body Systems Open circulatory system Complete digestive system with mouth, stomach, intestine, and anus. Mouth parts contain one pair of mandibles shaped differently for type of food eaten Excrete waste through Malpighian tubules Separate sexes that reproduce sexually,

internally for land types and externally for aquatic species. A few species are hermaphrodites and some can reproduce asexually through parthenogenesis. Sub-phylum Trilobita Ancient sea dwellers that are now extinct Sub-phyla Chelicerata Spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions

Major class Arachnida Body parts Cephalothorax thorax & head Abdomen contains 6 pair of appendages Chelicerae, pedipalps, 4 pr. of walking legs Chelicerae are modified into fangs Spinnerets produce silk Book lungs w/trachea to respire. Malpighian tubules used to remove waste

More Information Spiders are carnivores. Most deadly black widow & brown recluse Scorpions larger pincher-pedipalps, stinger on tail, hunt at night & glow under a black light. Photos by Jon Zawislak

We are still in Kingdom Animalia Mites & ticks are the most abundant type of arachnid They have a fused cepahlothorax & abdomen Parasites mites larvae are the chigger Ticks transfer

diseases & sickness American Dog Tick (B. Newton, 2003) Sub-phylum Crustacea Water fleas, Japanese spider crab, crabs, barnacles, pill bug, sow bug, crayfish, lobster Body Cephalothorax-head & thorax covered w/carapace Abdomen tail-telson; flat paddle on tail Appendages attached to each segment

Antennules-feelers, touch, taste, equilibrium Long Antenna feelers, touch, taste maxillae manipulate food/draw in water

maxillipeds manipulate food, touch, taste Mandible chew food Cheliped capture food, defense Swimmerets reproduction to hold zygotes Crayfish Diagram Other Features of Crustaceans Two opening digestive tract Breath through gills

Excess water leaves through green glands Sub-phylum Crustacea Horseshoe crabs Living fossils Live in deep costal waters where they forage on sandy or muddy ocean bottoms

Migrate to shallow waters for mating. (Encyclopedia Britannica) Sub-phyla Uniramia Millipedes, centipedes, & all insects Class Diplopoda Millipedes are detritus feeders

Two pair of legs per each body segment except last two Milli means 1000. Can spray foulsmelling fluid as means for defense. Fire Photo: Rob Rausch Class Chilopoda

Centipedes are carnivores One pair of legs per body segment Poisonous centi means 100 Giant Desert Centipede Photo: Andrew Loehman Class Insecta

Three body parts Head contains modified mouth parts Thorax 3 pr. of legs Abdomen stingers Malpighian tubules rid waste Proboscis long tongue for getting nectar. Insects have separate sexes w/internal fertilization Bilateral symmetry w/cephalization

Insect Tidbits Insects have to molt in order to grow. Metamorphosis - a developmental change in form. Two types. Complete-egg-larvapupa-adult Incomplete-egg-nymphadult Butterfly-caterpillar, flymaggot, beetle-grub

Use camouflage, bad taste, stingers, & mimicry for defense Communicate w/pheromones Social Insects live & work together.

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