Chapter 2 A Cultural Approach to Child Development

Chapter 2 A Cultural Approach to Child Development

Child Development A Cultural Approach Chapter 2 Genetics and Prenatal Development Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (1 of 4) 2.1 Distinguish between genotype and phenotype and

identify the different forms of genetic inheritance. 2.2 Describe the sex chromosomes and identify what makes them different from other chromosomes. 2.3 Explain how behavior geneticists use heritability estimates and concordance rates in their research. 2.4 Describe how the concept of epigenesis frames geneenvironment interactions, and connect epigenesis to the concept of reaction range. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (2 of 4)

2.5 Explain how the theory of genotype environment effects casts new light on the old naturenurture debate. 2.6 Outline the process of meiosis in the formation of reproductive cells. 2.7 Describe the process of fertilization and conception. 2.8 List the major causes and treatments for infertility, and describe how infertility is viewed in different cultures. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives (3 of 4) 2.9 Describe the structures that form during the germinal period. 2.10 Outline the major milestones of the embryonic period. 2.11 Describe the major milestones of the fetal period and identify when viability occurs. 2.12 Compare and contrast prenatal care in traditional cultures and developed countries. 2.13 Identify the major teratogens in developing

countries and developed countries. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (4 of 4) 2.14 Explain how chromosomal disorders occur. 2.15 Describe causes and symptoms of some common genetic disorders. 2.16 Describe the three main techniques of prenatal diagnosis. 2.17 Explain who is likely to seek genetic counseling and for what purpose.

Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetic Influences on Development Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetic Basics: Expression of Traits (1 of 3) Chromosomes-structure containing genes

DNA-stores and transfers genetic material Gene-segment of DNA containing coded instructions Genome-entire store of hereditary information Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetic Basics: Expression of Traits (2 of 3) Genotype the totality of an individuals

genes Phenotype actual characteristics This is what is seen or observed and can include a wide range of things Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetic Basics: Expression of Traits (3 of 3) Dominant genes expressed characteristics Recessive genes not expressed, although

it is a part of the genotype (genetic background) Allele alternate form of a gene Dominantrecessive inheritance a pair of chromosomes contains one dominant and one recessive gene Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.1 The Human Genome The 46 chromosomes in the human genome are organized into

23 pairs. This is the genome of a female; in a male the 23 rd pair would be XY rather than XX Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Table 2.1 Traits with Single-Gene DominantRecessive Inheritance Dominant Recessive Curly hair

Straight hair Dark hair Blonde hair Facial dimples No dimples

Normal hearing Deafness (some forms) Normal vision Nearsighted vision Freckles No freckles

Unattached ear lobe Attached ear lobe Can roll tongue in U-shape Cannot roll tongue in U-shape Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Genetic Basics: The Sex Chromosomes The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines male or female Males more vulnerable to X-linked recessive disorders X-linked inheritance Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.3 X-Linked Inheritance in

Hemophilia Why are males more vulnerable to recessive disorders carried on the X chromosome? Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetic Basics: Genes and the Environment (1 of 2) Behavior genetics Estimating influence of genes and environment on development

Utilize twins to understand importance of genetics and tease out environment effects Monozygotic (MZ) twins same genotype Dizygotic (DZ) twins two ova fertilized by sperm Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetic Basics: Genes and the Environment (2 of 2) Heritability An estimate of the extent to which genes are

responsible for differences among persons within a specific population Concordance rates Percentage that indicates degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Epigenesis and Reaction Ranges Epigenesis the continuous bidirectional

interactions between genes and environment Genetic activity responds constantly to environmental influences Genes establish a reaction range of potential expression and environment determines where phenotype will fall Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genotype and Environment Effects

Genotype-environment effects Passive genotype Results from the fact that in a biological family, parents provide both genes and environment to their children Evocative genotype Results when a persons inherited characteristics evoke responses from others in the environment Active genotype Results when people seek out environments that

correspond to their genotypic characteristics Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sperm and Egg Formation Gametes are reproductive cells (sperm and ovum) Mitosis is normal cell duplication and division with 46 chromosomes Meiosis is duplication and division with 46 chromosomes but in the process a division

occurs to allow only 23 chromosomes (ovum and sperm cells) Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.4 The Creation of Gametes Through Meiosis How does meiosis differ from mitosis? Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Conception

For conception to occur there must be a released ovum and a sperm Ovulation releases the ovum, and if sperm is available, fertilization can occur Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.5 Ovulation Process The two ovaries alternate ovulation in each monthly cycle. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Infertility Causes For men three main causes Too few sperm Quality of sperm Low motility For women many causes One is ovulation Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 2.6 Fertility and Maternal Age Why does fertility decline after the mid-20s? Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Infertility Treatments Many treatments utilize assisted reproductive technologies (ART) Artificial insemination Injects sperm into womans uterus

Fertility drugs Mimic hormones involved in ovulation In-vitro fertilization Ova removed and fertilized outside the womb then placed into uterus Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Infertility Worldwide

Cultural differences exist on how infertility is viewed In the West there may be a sense of sadness or loss as well as marital strain About half of all couples say it has made marriage stronger Outside of the West, can be deeply stigmatizing, especially for women Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 2.7 Milestones of Prenatal Development Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Germinal Period (First 2 Weeks) During the travel from the fallopian tube to the uterus cell division is taking place Blastocyst ball of about 100 cells formed by 1 week after conception Trophoblast outer layer of cell that will form structures that nourish and protect embryo

Amnion fluid-filled membrane in the womb Embryonic disk inner layer of cells which will form embryo Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Embryonic Period: Weeks 3 to 8 (1 of 2) Key Developments Embryonic layers Ectoderm becomes skin, hair, nails, sensory organs,

and the nervous system Mesoderm becomes the muscles, bones, reproductive system, and the circulatory system Endoderm becomes the digestive system and respiratory system Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Embryonic Period: Weeks 3 to 8 (2 of 2) Key organs and structures are forming,

including: Neural tube develops by week 3 Eyes, nose, mouth, and heartbeat by week 4 Buds that will be arms and legs start to develop in week 5 Liver, digestive system, and hearts separate chambers by week 8 Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Fetal Period (Week 9 to Birth) The longest period of prenatal development

Genitals develop by month 3 Movement can be felt by month 4 Breathes, hiccups, and responds to sound by the end of month 6 Main impediment to viability is lung development Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Prenatal Care ( 1 of 2) Prenatal beliefs are impacted by

generational wisdom of the time These beliefs can include Avoiding wine (Beng) Specific types of meat (Beng) Certain types of hot or cold food (Bali) Witches (Bali) Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Prenatal Care: (2 of 2) Developing countries have developed specific beliefs as well

These scientific beliefs include Women typically gain 25-35 pounds Women should receive regular evaluations Current care can vary by ethnicity and SES Developing world less likely to receive prenatal care Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Map 2.1 Ethnic Variations in Prenatal Care within the United States

How does prenatal care differ for White women compared with other ethnic groups? What economic factors might account for these variations? Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teratogens (1 of 3) Teratogens are environmental and bodily conditions that could be harmful They can include tobacco, alcohol, prescription medications, and other drugs The physical environment could also be a

teratogen due to malnutrition or exposure to hazardous chemicals Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teratogens (2 of 3) Malnutrition is the most common worldwide teratogen Eating healthy diets is recommended but not likely in developing countries Living in rural areas could also impact

prenatal health Folic acid can reduce incidences of anencephaly and spina bifida Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teratogens (3 of 3) Two key vitamins are iodine and iron Iodine deficiency tends to be a bigger issue in developing countries Iron is necessary for a healthy pregnancy

Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.8 Timing of Teratogens Vulnerability to teratogens is greatest in the embryonic period. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teratogens: Infectious Diseases (1 of 2) Rubella (German measles) Exposure during embryonic stage can lead to

heart abnormalities and mental retardation Exposure during the fetal stage can lead to hearing problems and low birth weight Vaccination can help but rubella remains widespread in less developed countries Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teratogens: Infectious Diseases (2 of 2)

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) Three strategies can help prevent transmission Effective medicines Cesarean sections for AIDS-infected moms Infant formula in place of breast-feeding Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teratogens: Alcohol

Widespread damage in developed countries Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder Includes facial deformities, heart problems, misshapen limbs, and a variety of cognitive problems Increased effects as child develops Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Teratogens: Nicotine Maternal smoking increases risk of

miscarriages, premature birth, and low birth weight Infant effects include difficulty breathing and impaired heart functioning Childhood effects include poorer language skills, attention and memory problems, and behavior problems Secondhand smoke by fathers is also detrimental Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Other Teratogens Alcohol and tobacco are common in developed countries Recreational psychoactive drugs cause physical, cognitive and behavioral problems Marijuana affects development of the brain and CNS Cocaine can result in low birth weight Heroin can lead to painful withdrawal Prescription drugs can be damaging Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Pregnancy Problems Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chromosomal Disorders Chromosomal disorders can occur because of an issue during meiosis This may cause too many or too few chromosomes in the cells of the zygote

Two types of chromosomal disorders are: Sex chromosome disorders Disorder on the 21st chromosome (Down syndrome) Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Sex Chromosome Disorders Sex chromosomal disorder can result from an extra X, an extra Y, or only an X and no second chromosome Common consequences of sex chromosome

disorders include: Cognitive deficit Abnormality in reproductive system at puberty Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Down Syndrome Trisomy-21 Identifiable by physical characteristics Cognitive deficits Speech problems Mental retardation

Social development varies Lower life expectancy Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Parental Age and Chromosomal Disorder Chromosomal disorders tend to NOT be passed from parent to child Relationship between maternal age and

chromosomal disorders There may be a relationship between a fathers age and chromosomal disorders but it isnt as clear Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 2.9 Down Syndrome and Maternal Age Why does the risk rise so steeply after age 40? Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Prenatal Diagnosis Ultrasounds uses high frequency sound waves Amniocentesis utilizes amniotic fluid 15 to 20 weeks into pregnancy Chorionic villus sampling utilizes cells from forming umbilical cord 5 to 10 weeks into pregnancy

Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Genetic Counseling Before having children some may seek out genetic counseling Inherited genetic condition Couples with history of miscarriage or infertility Older couples (women over 35, men over 40) Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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