Chapter 10 Personality - Henry County School District
Personality AP Exam Personality (57%) In this section of the course, students explore major theories of how humans develop enduring patterns of behavior and personal characteristics that influence how others relate to them. The unit also addresses research methods used to assess personality.
AP students in psychology should be able to do the following: Compare and contrast the major theories and approaches to explaining personality (e.g., psychoanalytic, humanist, cognitive, trait, social cognition, behavioral) Describe and compare research methods (e.g., case studies and surveys) that psychologists use to investigate personality. Identify frequently used assessment strategies (e.g., the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory [MMPI], the Thematic Apperception Test [TAT]), and evaluate
relative test quality based on reliability and validity of the instruments. Speculate how cultural context can facilitate or constrain personality development, especially as it relates to self-concept (e.g., collectivistic versus individualistic cultures). Identify key contributors to personality theory (e.g., Alfred Adler, Albert Bandura, Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers). Personality
Personality: The psychological qualities that bring a consistency to an individuals thoughts and behaviors in different situations and at different times. Personality is a continuously changing process, shaped by our individual needs and cognitions and by external pressures from the social environment. It is the thread that consistently runs through our lives. Types of Personalities Type A Type B
Feel time pressure. Relaxed and easygoing. Easily angered. But some people fit in neither type. Competitive and ambitious. Work hard and play hard.
More prone to heart disease than rest of population. Main Theories Psychodynamic Theory: Freuds theory that calls attention to motivation, especially unconscious motives, and the influence of our past experiences. Humanistic Theory: A theory that emphasizes the present, subjective reality-what we believe is important now, what we think of ourselves in relation to others is important now. Social-cognitive theory : derived from experiments in psychology rather than clinical work.
This theory is based on the idea that personality is a result of learning, perception and social interaction. Despite what it seems, social-cognitive theory and clinical perspective compliment each other and share some common ideas. Clinical Perspective The clinical perspective utilizes a combination of the psychodynamic and humanistic theories. This is most often used by psychologists who are working with people who are seeking counseling.
Psychodynamic Theories Although there are a variety of psychodynamic theories, they originate with Freuds psychoanalytic theory. In this theory, Freud said the unconscious, the hidden parts of the mind, was a source of powerful impulses, instincts, motives, and conflicts that energize personality.
Psychodynamic Theory Freuds psychodynamic theory developed in the early 1900s grew out of his work with patients. Freud used the term dynamic to refer to mental energy force. It emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences, unconscious or repressed thoughts that we cant voluntarily access, and the conflicts between conscious and unconscious forces that influence our feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis focuses on how the minds energy is exchanged, transformed and expressed. The mental stream of the sex drive was called the Eros, he Greek god for passionate love. The energy behind this drive was called libido, Latin for lust. The mental stream for destruction was Thanatos. Freud called it the death instinct that drives aggressive and destructive acts humans commit against each other. Psychodynamic Theory
Conscious thoughts: are wishes, desires, or thoughts that we are aware of or can recall at any given moment. Preconscious- things we can be aware of if we think of them.
Unconscious forces: represent wishes desires, or thoughts that because of their disturbing/threatening content, we automatically repress and cannot voluntarily access. Freud believed that a large part of our behavior was guided or Psychodynamic Theory
Unconscious motivation: is a Freudian concept that refers to the influence of repressed thoughts, desires, or impulses on our conscious thoughts and behaviors. Techniques to Discover the Unconscious Freud developed three methods to uncover unconscious processes: free association, dream interpretation, and slips of the tongue (Freudian slips). Free association: Freud encouraged
clients to talk about any thoughts or images that enter their head; the assumption is that this kind of freeflowing uncensored talking will provide clues to unconscious material. Techniques to Discover the Unconscious Dream Interpretation: a Freudian technique of analyzing dreams, is based on the assumption that dreams contain underlying, hidden meanings and symbols that provide clues to unconscious thoughts and desires. Freud distinguished between the dreams
obvious story or plot, called manifest content, and the dreams hidden or disguised meanings or symbols, called latent content. Techniques to Discover the Unconscious Freudian Slips: are mistakes or slips of the tongue that we make in everyday speech; such mistakes which are often embarrassing, are thought to reflect unconscious thoughts or wishes.
Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxWoNBWD0v4&list=PL7A30288C511D4EDD Techniques to Discover the Unconscious Freud assumed that the 3 techniques are all mental processes that are the least controlled by our conscious, rational, and logical minds. As a result, he believed that these 3 techniques allowed uncensored clues to slip out and reveal our deeper unconscious wishes and desires. Psychodynamic Theory To understand how the id,
ego, and superego interact, imagine an iceberg floating in the sea. The part of the iceberg that is above water represents conscious forces of which we are aware, while parts below the water indicate unconscious forces of which we are not aware. The Id
In Freuds model, the id is the primitive, unconscious reservoir that houses the basic motives, drives and instinctive desires that determine our personalities. Always acts on impulse and seeks immediate pleasure The only part of the personality present at birth 2 biological drives- sex and aggression Source of all mental energy. The id follows the pleasure principle, which is to satisfy the drives and avoid pain, without concern
for moral restrictions or societys regulations. The Ego Regulating the conflict between the id and the superego is the job of the egothe conscious, rational part of the mind. The ego must figure out a way to satisfy ones desires, while not violating ones moral code. When this balance becomes upset, conflicted thoughts and behaviors that signify a mental disorder may be the result The ego follows the reality principle,
which is to satisfy a wish or desire only if there is a socially acceptable outlet available. The ego develops from the id during infancy. The Superego The superego is the police of personality and is responsible for morals and values learned from society. The superego develops as the the child forms an internal set of rules based on external experiences The inner voice of shoulds and should nots
Often conflicts with the id because the id wants what feels good and the superego wants what is right and moral The superego develops from the ego during early childhood. Psychodynamic Theory Disagreements? Freud believed that often times there is little to no disagreement between the goals of the id and superego. However, when disagreement occurs Freud theorized that the ego works to find compromise between the goals of the id
an superego. This compromise is found by the ego using what Freud described as mental processes or defense mechanisms. Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms are Freudian processes that operate at unconscious levels and that use selfdeception or untrue explanations to protect the ego from being overwhelmed by anxiety. Anxiety: an uncomfortable feeling that results from inner conflicts between the primitive desires of the id and moral goals of the superego. Defense Mechanisms
Rationalization: involves covering up the true reasons for actions, thoughts, or feelings by making up excuses and incorrect explanations. Denial: is refusing to recognize some anxiety provoking event or piece of information that is clear to others. Repression: involves blocking and pushing unacceptable or threatening feelings, wishes, or experiences in the unconscious. Defense Mechanisms Projection: falsely and unconsciously attributes your own unacceptable feelings, traits, or thoughts to
individuals or objects. Reaction Formation: involves substituting behaviors, thoughts, or feelings that are the direct opposite of unacceptable ones. Displacement: involves transferring feelings about, or response to, an object that causes anxiety to another person or object that is less threatening. Sublimation- Channeling ones frustration toward a different goal. Sometimes a healthy defense mechanism. Defense Mechanisms Note that all these defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously.
They reduce anxiety by disguising our threatening impulses. Just as the body unconsciously defends itself against disease, so also, believed Freud does the ego unconsciously defend itself against anxiety. 5 Psychosexual Stages Analysis of his patients histories convinced Freud that personality forms during lifes first few years. Again and again his patients symptoms seemed rooted in unresolved conflicts from early childhood.
He concluded that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages, during which the ids pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensative areas of the body called erogenous zones. 5 Psychosexual Stages Freuds Psychosexual Stages Stage Focus Oral
(0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth-sucking, biting, chewing Anal (18-36 months) control Phallic (3-6 years) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for
Latency (6 to puberty) Dormant sexual feelings Genital (puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Psychosexual Stages Freud believed that our early experiences stayed with us and affected us throughout our development, especially with regards to sex. Should something happen in the early years, people will have problems to overcome later in life specifically dealing with sexuality: Oedipus complex: boy in love with their mother Identification: boys in love their mom/identify with their dad Penis envy: girls desire to have a penis-attracted to males Fixation: occurs when development is stopped at a particular stage
Ego Defense Ego defense is the largely unconscious mental strategy to reduce anxiety or conflict. Repression: the ego defense that excludes unacceptable or inappropriate thoughts and feelings from our awareness. Assessing the Unconscious Projective Test a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger
projection of ones inner dynamics Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes Their answers reveal the Manifest content. They can then discover the Latent Content. Assessing the Unconscious--TAT Assessing the Unconscious
Rorschach Inkblot Test the most widely used projective test a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach seeks to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots Assessing the Unconscious-Rorschach Criticism of Freud While Freud is still wildly popular in media and culture, it has lost most of it support in
the psychology field. Many Freudian concepts (libido, repression) are vague The focus is on retrospective explanation Only looks back, doesnt give credit to the present or future No thought given to women The unconscious mind is not as smart/purposeful as Freud would like us to believe Neo-Freudians
Freud was a controversial figure, and many of his collogues broke away from his view, but still maintained a psychodynamic aspect to their theories Alfred Adler importance of childhood social tension Karen Horney sought to balance Freuds masculine biases Carl Jung emphasized the collective unconscious concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history
. Freuds Followers and Critics Carl Jung: Jung originally a close friend and follower of Freud disagreed with Freud's emphasis on the sex drive. Jung believed the collective unconscious-and not sex-to be the basic force in the development of personality.
The collective unconscious, according to Jung, consists of ancient memory traces and symbols that are passed on by birth and are shared by all peoples in all cultures. Freuds Followers and Critics Alfred Adler: like Jung was originally a friend and follower of Freuds but he disagreed with his theory that humans are
governed by biological and sexual urges. Adler believed that the main factors influencing a childs development were sibling influences and child-rearing practices. Adler proposed that humans are motivated by social urges and that each person is a social being with a unique personality. In contrast to Freuds emphasis on
unconscious forces that influence our behaviors, Adler suggested that we are aware of our motives and goals and have the capacity to guide and plan our futures. Freuds Followers and Critics Karen Horney: never a follower of Freud strongly objected to his view that women were dependent, vain, and submissive because of biological forces and childhood sexual experiences. She especially took issue with Freuds
idea that penis envy affected girls development. Horney insisted that he major influence on personality development can be found in child-parent social interaction. Humanistic Theories Humanistic theories are optimistic about the core of human nature. Personality is driven by needs to adapt and learn, rather than unconscious conflicts or defense mechanisms and anxiety
Mental disorders occur when a person is in an unhealthy situation that causes low self-esteem and unmet needs, not from unhealthy individuals. Abraham Maslow The most famous humanistic perspective came from Abraham Maslow who created a hierarchy of needs (chapter 8). He said we needed something that described good mental health as more than just the absence of illness. Maslow saw a group of people in pursuit of higher ideals and wanted a way to explain their behavior.
Self-actualizing personalities-healthy individuals who have met their basic needs and are free to be creative and fulfill their potentialities. Maslows Heirarchy of Needs Maslows Heirarchy of Needs It arranges needs in ascending order with biological needs at the bottom and social and personal needs at the top. Only when needs at a lower level are met can we
advance to the next level. Maslows Heirarchy of Needs Deficiency needs are physiological needs (food, sleep) and psychological needs (safety, love, esteem) that we try to fulfill if they are not met. Growth needs are those at the higher levels and include the desire for truth, goodness, beauty and justice. Maslows Heirarchy of
Needs According to Maslow, we must satisfy our deficiency needs before having the time and energy to satisfy our growth needs and move toward self-actualization. Self-actualization: refers to the development and fulfillment of ones unique human potential Characteristics of SelfActualized Individuals They perceive reality accurately. They are independent and autonomous. They prefer to have a deep, loving
relationship with only a few people. They focus on accomplishing their goals. They report peak experiences, which are moments of great joy and satisfaction. Carl Rogers Another famous humanists was Carl Rogers who took a different approach. He identified healthy personalities as the fully functioning person. An individual who has a self-concept that is positive and congruent with reality.
Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective He believed that people are basically good and are endowed with selfactualizing tendencies. He also believed that people nurture our growth by being genuine-by being open with their own feelings, dropping their facades, and being transparent and self-disclosing.
Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective People nurture our growth by being accepting-by offering us what Rogers called unconditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard: an attitude of total acceptance toward
another person Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective Finally, people nurture our growth by being empathetic-by sharing and mirroring our feelings and reflecting our meanings.
Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective Rogers believed that genuineness, acceptance, and empathy nurture growth in all of our relationships. Self-Concept Who am I? The answer to this question is our self-concept.
Positive vs. Negative How do they test? Interviews or Rogers Questionnaire Carl Rogers and Humanistic Psychologists Humanistic psychology helped to renew psychologys interest in the self. Perhaps one more reason that the message has been so well received is that its emphasis on the individual self-reflects and reinforces western cultural values.
Criticism of Humanistic Theories People criticize humanistic concepts as being fuzzy-what is self actualization? For a long time, self-esteem was thought to cause people to act the way they do. More recently, psychologists have argued that self-esteem isnt the cause of behavior, but rather a by-product of behavior. Criticisms of the Humanistic Perspective Nevertheless, its critics have complained that
humanistic psychologys concepts were vague and subjective, its values individualist and selfcentered, and its assumptions naively optimistic. Humanistic psychologists have countered that secure, non-defensive self-acceptance is actually the first step toward loving others. People who feel intrinsically liked and accepted exhibit less defensive attitudes. Criticisms of the Humanistic Perspective Critics also emphasize that the perspective leaves out those evil personalities. Rogers claimed that evil springs not from human
nature but from toxic cultural influences. Social-cognitive Theories Where are the clinical views lack scientific backing, the social-cognitive theories are solidly founded in scientific tradition, with emphasis put on research. The most well known of these theories is observational learning, supported by Albert Bandura. Bandura said we are not only driven by inner forces and the environment, but also expectations about
how those actions will affect other people, the environment and ourselves. The Social Cognitive Perspective This theory views behavior as influenced by the interactions between persons and their social context. Albert Bandura proposed this
perspective on personality. The Social Cognitive Perspective Bandura called the process of interacting with our environment reciprocal determinism. 3 ways individual situations and
environments interact: 1. Different people choose different environments. 2. Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events. 3. Our personalities help create situations to which we react. The Social Cognitive Perspective Behavior emerges from the interplay of external and internal influences.
At every moment, our behavior is influenced by our biology, our social experiences, and our cognition and personality. Observational Learning In observational learning, we learn new responses by watching each others behavior. Personality, thus, is learned behavior patterns These cognitive process involve an ongoing relationship between the individual and the environment called reciprocal determinism The Social Cognitive
Perspective In studying how we interact with our environment, social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control. Personal control: our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless Social-Cognitive Perspective Locus of Control our sense of controlling our environments rather than feeling helpless
External Locus of Control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond ones personal control determine ones fate Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Hm_OhM3tKU Social-Cognitive Perspective Internal Locus of Control the perception that one controls ones own fate
Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJR9-8p5hiA Learned Helplessness (Seligman) the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncnWlcnNSvo Personal Control Learned helplessness: the
hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. People who feel helpless and oppressed often perceive control as external. It is important for young and old people alike to create environments that enhance our sense of control and personal efficacy. Perceived control is basic to
human functioning. Social-Cognitive Perspective Learned Helplessness Uncontrollable bad events Perceived lack of control Generalized helpless behavior
Personal Control Under conditions of personal freedom and empowerment, people thrive. Citizens of stable democracies report higher levels of happiness. Personal Control Excess of freedom in today's Western cultures contributes to decreasing life
satisfaction, increased depression, and sometimes paralysis. The tyranny of choice bring information overload and a greater likelihood that we will feel regret over some of the unchosen options. Optimism vs. Pessimism An optimistic or pessimistic attributional style-your way of explaining events-can be a window revealing, how effective or helpless you feel.
Students who express an attitude of hopeful optimism tend to get better grades than those who have a negative attributional style But excessive optimism can foster feeling of invincibility that expose us to unnecessary risks. Optimism vs. Pessimism Positive psychology, like humanistic psychology, attempts to foster human fulfillment.
But it differs from humanistic psychology in its scientific methods. The 3 goals of positive psychology: studying and fostering 1. positive subjective well-being 2. positive character 3. positive groups, communities, and cultures Social Cognitive Research Social cognitive researchers are interested
in how peoples behaviors and beliefs affect, and are affected by, their surroundings. They observe people in realistic situations because they have found that the best way to predict someones behavior in a given situation is to
observe that persons behavior pattern in similar situations. Evaluating the Social Cognitive Perspective Critics fault the social-cognitive perspective for focusing so much on the situation that is loses sight of the persons inner traits. They maintain that this perspective slights the importance of unconscious dynamics, emotional, and biologically influenced traits.
Personality and Temperament Temperament is the inherited personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood and that establish tempo and mood in the individuals behaviors. Biological dispositions affect our basic personalities The Trait Theory of Personality Trait researchers attempt to define personality in terms
of stable and enduring behavior patterns. The main psychologist linked to this theory is Gordon Allport. Traits and Personality Traits are stable personality characteristics that are presumed to exist within the individual and to guide his or her thoughts
and actions under various conditions The Five-Factor Theory: A perspective suggesting that personality is composed of five fundamental personality dimensions: openness to experience, consciousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The Big 5 Factors Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness
Extraversion These 5 appear to be stable in adulthood, substantially heritable, applicable to all cultures, and good predictors of other personal attributes. Five-Factor Theory The Big Five Personality Factors Trait Dimension Description Emotional StabilityCalm versus anxious
Secure versus insecure Self-satisfied versus self-pitying Extraversion Sociable versus retiring Fun-loving versus sober Affectionate versus reserved Openness Imaginative versus practical Preference for variety versus preference for routine Independent versus conforming
Agreeableness Soft-hearted versus ruthless Trusting versus suspicious Helpful versus uncooperative Organized versus disorganized Careful versus careless Disciplined versus impulsive Conscientiousness The Trait Theory of
Personality Trait theory says relatively little about the development or growth of personality but instead emphasizes measuring and identifying differences among personalities. Allport concluded to describe personality in terms of fundamental traits. Trait: a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports. The Trait Theory of Personality
Allport was also concerned less with explaining individual traits than with describing them. He described people using broad personality types that signal ones most noteworthy trait and its associated characteristics. Personality Inventory a questionnaire (often with true-false or agreedisagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors used to assess selected personality traits Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
This test attempts to sort people according to Carl Jungs personality types, based on their responses to 126 questions. Incredibly popular test! Taken by 2.5 million Americans per year and used by 89 of the 100 largest corporations in the U.S. A national research council report noted, however, that despite the tests popularity there is an absence of proven scientific worth. Exploring Traits Allport and a colleague counted all the words that could describe someone in an
unabridged dictionary and they discovered that there were 18,000! How can psychologists condense the list to a manageable number of basic traits? By isolating important dimensions of personality by using factor analysis. Factor Analysis Hans Eysenck and Sybil Eysenck proposed that 2 primary, genetically influenced dimensions will explain normal individual
variations: extraversionintroversion and emotional stability-instability The Trait Perspective Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet
UNSTABLE Hans and Sybil Eysenck use two primary personality factors melancholic INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED as axes for phlegmatic sanguine Passive Sociable describing Careful
STABLE Biology and Personality Brain-activity scans do indicate that extraverts and introverts differ in their level of brain arousal Jerome Kagan believes that heredity, by influencing autonomic nervous system reactivity, also influences temperament and behavioral
style, which help define personality. Somatotype Theory A biological Theory by William Sheldon. Endomorphs (Fat) tend to be friendly and outgoing.
Mesomorphs (muscular) tend to be more aggressive. Ectomorphs (thin) tend to be more shy and secretive.
Study has not been replicated. Assessing Traits Personality inventories: are questionnaires on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors. The MMPI-2 is the most widely used! The MMPI are empirically derived, and the tests are objectively scored. Objectivity does not guarantee validity and people may answer MMPI questions in ways
that are socially appropriate but not truthful. The Trait Perspective Clinically significant range Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Before treatment Inventory
(anxious, depressed, (MMPI) test and displaying profile Hypochondriasis 1 (concern with body symptoms) Depression (pessimism, hopelessness)2 After treatment (no scores
in the clinically significant range) Hysteria (uses symptoms to solve problems) 3 Psychopathic deviancy 4 (disregard for social standards) Masculinity/femininity 5 (interests like those of other sex) Paranoia (delusions, suspiciousness) 6 deviant
Trait Expressiveness Expressive styles, animation, manner of speaking, and gestures-demonstrate how consistent traits can be, despite situational variations in behavior. Observers have been able to judge expressiveness in video snippets as short as 2 seconds long! Evaluating Trait Perspective Critics of the trait perspective point out that
although peoples general traits may persist over time, their specific behavior varies from situation to situation as their inner disposition interacts with a particular environment. i.e. Traits are not good predictors of behavior. Evaluating Trait Perspective Trait theorists reply to these criticisms that despite these variations, a persons average behavior across many different situations tends to
be fairly consistent. Review: Crash Course https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUELAiHbCxc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUrV6oZ3zsk
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