Chapter 29 Protest and Stagnation: The Western World, 19651985 Focus Questions What were the goals of the revolt in sexual mores, the youth protests and student revolts, the feminist movement, and the antiwar protests? To what extent were their goals achieved? What were the major political developments in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and the United States between 1965 and 1985?
What were the main events in the Cold War between 1965 and 1985, and how important was the role of dtente in those events? What were the major social and cultural developments in the Western world between 1965 and 1985? The barricades go up in Paris in May 1968 p896 A Culture of Protest A Revolt in Sexual Mores The so-called sexual revolution
Permissive society Sex education and gay rights (decriminalization) Birth control pill more sexual freedom Divorce and the breakdown in the traditional family Womens rights, changes in fashion Youth Protest and Student Revolt New attitudes toward sex and drugs Growing political consciousness Discontent with higher educations restrictions and quality lead to student revolts, 1968 A Culture of Protest
Youth Protest and Student Revolt New attitudes toward sex and drugs Marijuana and LSD, mind-altering drugs Growing political consciousness Higher education increased, but led to crowded classrooms and neglected students. Discontent with higher educations restrictions and quality lead to student revolts, May 4, 1968
Deeper concerns with the direction of Western society Students demand voice in education May 10, 1968: Night of the Barricades. Students were later joined by the workers in striking Youth Culture in the 1960s (Slide 1 of 3) The love-in shows another facet of the youth movement. p898 Youth Culture in the 1960s (Slide 2 of 3) A group of young protesters face the bayonets of the National Guardsmen who had been called in by Governor Ronald Reagan to restore order on the Berkeley campus of the University of California during an antiwar rally. p898
Youth Culture in the 1960s (Slide 3 of 3) A member of the Diggers, a communal group in San Francisco, is shown feeding a flower child. p898 A Culture of Protest 1968: Student Protests everywhere Permanent order still prevailed: prosperous, capitalist west, and an impoverished communist east. The Feminist Movement- because politicl and legal equality still didnt bring true equality.
Betty Friedan (1921 2006) The Feminine Mystique National Organization for Women (NOW), founded 1966 A Culture of Protest Antiwar Protests Motivation for demonstrations in Italy, France, Britain, and the U.S. They saw the war as a final act of imperialism.
Divided Americans and Europeans, because not everyone agreed with the protestors. Violence dims American willingness to continue war in Vietnam Womens Liberation Movement In the late 1960s, as women began once again to assert their rights, a revived womens liberation movement emerged. Feminists in the movement maintained that women themselves must alter the conditions of their lives. p901 A Divided Western World Stagnation in the Soviet Union The Brezhnev Years: Leonid Brezhnev (1906
1982) No experimentation: rigid adherence to traditional Soviet communism. Brezhnev Doctrine: right to intervene if socialism threatened Led to intervention in Czechoslovakia, 1968 Relaxed atmosphere associated with dtente Reluctant to reform the USSR Brezhnev Years Relaxed some authoritarian rule
Allowed some access to Western culture, but dissenters were punished. People craved more Western music, fashion, art Economic policy Decline of overall industrial growth: focus on heavy industry and space, but not commodities. Impact of central economic planning: inefficient bureaucracy Agricultural problems Bad harvests in mid-1970s force them to buy grain from the U.S.
Brezhnev Years Ruling system Unwilling to tamper with the party leadership and state bureaucracy To rise in the party, one needed support from the party. This creates a party elite oligarchy. 1980: USSR is in trouble
Low quality of life Declining morale, economy, and work conditions. Rise in alcoholism and infant mortality. Forced Conformity in Eastern Europe The USSR claimed to be a workers paradise in the new world order. So, resistance in their Soviet satellite states and republics was embarrassing. Attempted escapes from East Germany Berlin
Wall, for example. Eastern European governments respond by trying to reform and relax their rule. Soviet Union responded with brute force to crush any reforms. Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia Conformity in Eastern Europe Poland Continued labor unrest
Solidarity : an independent labor union (not controlled by the state) formed to protest food prices- STRIKE. Led by Lech Walesa and supported by 35 million Poles including the Catholic Church. Pope John Paul II, aka Karol Wojtyla, the first Polish Pope Sep 1980, Head of Communist Party is replaced, and radio broadcasts a Catholic Mass for first time in 30 years. Summer 1981: Elections were held (all candidates were communist, but still- progress! General Jaruzelski takes lead of the Party, imposes
martial law, arrests Solidarity leaders. Prevented a Soviet invasion, like in Czechoslovakia, but martial law lasted until 1983. Conformity in Eastern Europe Hungary Reforms under Jnos Kdr Legalization of small private enterprises Communism with a capitalist facelift The Prague Spring
Short-lived reforms under Alexander Dubek (1921 1992) Czechoslovakia had been Stalinist under Antonin Novotny. 1968: Dubcek reforms include free speech, press, travel abroad, relaxed secret police. Prague Spring: sense of free euphoria, happiness, but led to demands to withdraw from Soviet bloc. Soviet Red Army invades to crush reforms, 1968 Gustv Husk (1913 1991) re-establishes old order. Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968 The attempt of Alexander Dubcek, the new first secretary of the Communist
Party in Czechoslovakia, to liberalize Communist rule in that country failed when Soviet troops invaded and crushed the reform movement. p903 Opposing Viewpoints: Czechoslovakia, 1968. Two Faces of Communism 1.) What ideals are expressed by the Czech Communist intellectuals who wrote the Two Thousand Words Manifesto? 2.) What does the manifesto advocate for the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia? 3.) How does Brezhnev respond to the
manifesto? 4.) How does the vision for communism expressed in Brezhnevs letter differ from the manifesto, and what might be the reasons for that difference? Repression in East Germany and Romania East Germany: Faithful Soviet Satellite Leadership of Walter Ulbricht Erich Honecker
Industry nationalized, agriculture collectivized Exodus to the West; young labor force flees to West, leads to economic problems. Berlin Wall Use of the Stasi- secret police in East Germany Ruled with iron fist until 1989. Stability through prosperity and repression Romania The iron grip of Nicolae and Elena Ceauescu The Securitate: weapon against dissent
CHRONOLOGY The Soviet Bloc Event Dates Era of Brezhnev 19641982 Rule of Ceauescu in Romania 19651989 Prague Spring 1968 Honecker succeeds Ulbricht in East Germany 1971
Emergence of Solidarity in Poland 1980 Gorbachev comes to power in the Soviet Union 1985 p904 Western Europe: The Winds of Change 1950s-1960s: Incredible economic growth 1973-1974 and 1979-1983: Severe recessions 1980s: Recovery with problems
West Germany Chancellor Willy Brandt, 1969-1974 Ostpolitik, opening toward the east Treaty with East Germany, 1972 Great Britain: Thatcher and Thatcherism Conservative Margaret Thatcher comes to power, 1979
Economic controls: broke the unions; cutbacks Hard line toward communism Rebuilds the military Conflict in the Falkland Islands Film & History: The Iron Lady (2011) Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (Meryl Streep) at a cabinet meeting. p906 Margaret Thatcher Great Britains first female prime minister, Margaret Thatcher was a strong leader who dominated British politics in the 1980s. p906 Margaret Thatcher: Thatcherism
and the Free Market 1.) When she alluded to experience showing the failure of socialism, what specific events and countries may she have had in mind? 2.) Is she opposed to charity? Why then is she opposed to the Welfare State as it then stood? 3.) How does she blame labor unions for some of Britains economic problems? 4.) How does her rhetoric compare with other heads of state from the same time period (i.e. Reagan in the US)? 5.) Why is a free market system better than a regulated
one, in her opinion? Western Europe: The Winds of Change Uncertainties in France Franois Mitterrand, 1981-1995 Liberal policies to address economic crises
Reforms for workers, centralization, and nationalization Increased minimum wage, mandatory paid vacation, 39 hour work week, taxed the rich. Nationalization of industry didnt work. Had to reprivatize them in the late 1980s. Return to private enterprise in the late 1980s Confusion in Italy Continued coalitions Italian Communist advocacy of Eurocommunism Recession and terrorism in the 1970s Red Brigade Western Europe: Winds of Change
The European Community (EC) After 1970, Western European states continued to integrate economies. European Economic Community (EEC) started with 6 countries, joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, then Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Led to international and political cooperation. CHRONOLOGY Western Europe, 1965-1985 Event
Dates Willy Brandt becomes chancellor of West Germany 1969 Helmut Schmidt becomes chancellor of West Germany 1974 Margaret Thatcher becomes prime minister of Britain 1979 Franois Mitterrand becomes president of France 1981 Falklands War 1982 Helmut Kohl becomes chancellor of West Germany
1982 p907 The United States: Turmoil and Tranquility Richard Nixon,1968-1974, and the Shift to the Right Economic Problems Jimmy Carter, 1976-1980
Stagflation high inflation and unemployment Oil embargo, 1973 The hostage crisis in Iran The Reagan Revolution Ronald Reagan, 1981-1989 Reverses the welfare state Military buildup Supply-side economics and deficit spending Canada Liberals in Power
Pierre Trudeau, elected in 1968 Commitment to federal union Official Language Act Unpopularity of efforts to impose will of federal government on provincial governments Economic Recession and Political Change Brian Mulroney, leader of the Progressive Conservative Party, elected in 1984
The Cold War: The Move to Dtente The Second Vietnam War U.S. involvement and the domino theory of the spread of communism Persistence of North Vietnamese, brutalization, and growing antiwar sentiment Peace treaty signed January 1973 Reunification of Vietnam
China and the Cold War The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Continuing revolution and the Red Guards, 19661976 U.S.-China Relations Nixons visit to China, 1972 The Vietnam War p909 The Second Vietnam War
Between 1965 and 1973, U.S. troops fought against Vietcong guerrillas and North Vietnamese regular forces until they were finally withdrawn as a result of the Paris Agreement reached in January 1973. p909 The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution, which began in 1966, was a massive effort by Mao Zedong and his radical supporters to eliminate rival elements within the Chinese Communist Party and achieve the final stage of communisma classless society. p910 The Cold War: The Move to Dtente The Practice of Dtente
Antiballistic Missile Treaty, 1972- agree to limit systems for launching antiballistic missiles, make it unlikely that either side could win. Seen as a way to prevent war. Helsinki Agreements, 1975 Recognized all borders in Europe since WWII, so the West acknowledged the Soviet sphere of influence. The Move to Dtente The Limits of Dtente Human rights issues
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, 1979- ended dtente. U.S. helped train Mujahideen holy warriors to fight off the Soviets, effectively turning Afghanistan into The Soviet Unions Vietnam War Later, the Mujahideen became the Taliban. President Ronald Reagans evil empire Harsh rhetoric and new arms race. The Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars) Society and Culture in the Western World
The New World of Science and Technology New relationships between theory and practice The computer Revolution by silicon chip and microprocessor New conception of the universe
Impetus: the needs of World War II Consequences: sponsorship of research by government and corporations Questions about the nature of reality Dangers of science and technology E.F. Schumacher (1911 1977), Small is Beautiful On the Moon The first landing on the moon in 1969 was one of the great technological achievements of the twentieth century. p912 Society and Culture in the Western World
The Environment and the Green Movements Hazards and growing ecological awareness Rise of Green parties Postmodern Thought Structuralism: language and signs Ferdinand de Saussure: signifier and signified
Poststructuralism, or deconstruction Jacques Derrida and the creation of meaning Michel Foucault and the nature of power The History of Sexuality Trends in Art, Literature, and Music Postmodern Styles Art Allen Kaprows happenings
Architecture: mixing tradition and innovation Robert Venturi Charles Moore Literature Piazza dItalia Gabriel Garca Mrquez and magical realism Milan Kundera
Music Serialist composition: Olivier Messiaen Minimalism: Philip Glass Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty Built on an abandoned industrial site, Spiral Jetty disappears and reappears according to the rise and fall of the Great Salt Lakes water level. p915 Charles Moore, Piazza dItalia Dedicated to the Italian communities of New Orleans, Piazza dItalia includes a schematic map of Italy on its pavement. p916 Popular Culture: Image and Globalization
Popular music Experimentation in musical forms Video music MTV The Growth of Mass Sports Sport as a global phenomenon Politics and the Olympic Games
The World Cup Popular culture: increasingly global Marshall McLuhan (1911 1980) and the global village Chapter Timeline p918 Discussion Questions Examine the policies of Brezhnev. Are they old guard
communist or a transition between the old Soviet regime and the more modern Soviet state to come? How did Margaret Thatcher shape the position of Great Britain in power structure of world politics? What is dtente? How did the policies of Nixon influence relations between the West and the Communist world? How did changes in science and technology impact Western civilization during the 1960s and 1970s? To what degree has popular culture helped to turn the world into a global village?
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